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Scholarch
A scholarch (Ancient Greek: σχολάρχης, scholarchēs) was the head of a school in ancient Greece. The term is especially remembered for its use to mean the heads of schools of philosophy, such as the Platonic Academy
Platonic Academy
in ancient Athens. Its first scholarch was Plato himself, the founder and proprietor. He held the position for forty years, appointing his nephew Speussipus
Speussipus
as his successor; later scholarchs were elected by members of the Academy. The Greek word is a produced compound of scholē (σχολή), "school,"[1] and archē (ἀρχή), "ruler."[2] The Romans did not choose to Latinize the word, perhaps because they had no archons
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Ancient Greek Language
The Ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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Hellenistic Period
The Hellenistic
Hellenistic
period covers the period of Mediterranean
Mediterranean
history between the death of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
as signified by the Battle of Actium
Battle of Actium
in 31 BC[1] and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt
Egypt
the following year.[2] The Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word Hellas (Ἑλλάς, Ellás) is the original word for Greece, from which the word "Hellenistic" was derived.[3] At this time, Greek cultural influence and power was at its peak in Europe, North Africa
North Africa
and Western Asia, experiencing prosperity and progress in the arts, exploration, literature, theatre, architecture, music, mathematics, philosophy, and science
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Hermarchus
Hermarchus or Hermarch (Greek: Ἕρμαρχoς, Hermarkhos; c. 325-c. 250 BC[1]), sometimes incorrectly written Hermachus (Greek: Ἕρμαχoς, Hermakhos), was an Epicurean
Epicurean
philosopher. He was the disciple and successor of Epicurus
Epicurus
as head of the school. None of his writings survive. He wrote works directed against Plato, Aristotle, and Empedocles. A fragment from his Against Empedocles, preserved by Porphyry, discusses the need for law in society
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Epicurus
Epicurus
Epicurus
(/ˌɛpɪˈkjʊərəs, ˌɛpɪˈkjɔːrəs/;[2] Greek: Ἐπίκουρος, Epíkouros, "ally, comrade"; 341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who founded a school of philosophy now called Epicureanism. Only a few fragments and letters of Epicurus's 300 written works remain. Much of what is known about Epicurean philosophy derives from later followers and commentators. For Epicurus, the purpose of philosophy was to attain the happy, tranquil life, characterized by ataraxia—peace and freedom from fear—and aponia—the absence of pain—and by living a self-sufficient life surrounded by friends. He taught that the root of all human neurosis was death denial, and the tendency for human beings to assume that death will be horrific and painful, which he claimed causes unnecessary anxiety, selfish self-protective behaviors, and hypocrisy
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Antipater Of Tarsus
Antipater of Tarsus (Greek: Ἀντίπατρος ὁ Ταρσεύς; died 130/129 BC[1]) was a Stoic philosopher. He was the pupil and successor of Diogenes of Babylon as leader of the Stoic school, and was the teacher of Panaetius. He wrote works on the gods and on divination, and in ethics he took a higher moral ground than that of his teacher Diogenes.Contents1 Life 2 Philosophy 3 Notes 4 ReferencesLife[edit] Very little is known about Antipater's life, except that he was the disciple and successor of Diogenes of Babylon as leader of the Stoic school in Athens, and he was the teacher of Panaetius.[2] The few extant accounts of his philosophical opinions would not be sufficient grounds for any great reputation, if it were not for the testimony of ancient authors to his merit
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Zeno Of Tarsus
Tarsus may refer to: Geography[edit]Tarsus, Mersin, ancient and modern city in Turkey (former region of Cilicia) Tarsus (West Syrian Diocese), a Syrian Orthodox archdiocese, attested between the seventh and thirteenth centuries Tarsus Waterfall, on the outskirts of the city Berdan River, also known as the Tarsus River, which fl
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Diodorus Of Tyre
Diodorus of Tyre (Greek: Διόδωρος), was a Peripatetic philosopher, and a disciple and follower of Critolaus, whom he succeeded as the head of the Peripatetic school
Peripatetic school
at Athens
Athens
c. 118 BC. He was still alive and active there in 110 BC, when Licinius Crassus, during his quaestorship of Macedonia, visited Athens. Cicero
Cicero
denies that he was a genuine Peripatetic, because it was one of his ethical maxims, that the greatest good consisted in a combination of virtue with the absence of pain, whereby a reconciliation between the Stoics and Epicureans
Epicureans
was attempted.[1] Notes[edit]^ Cicero, de Oratore, i. 11, Tusculanae Disputationes, v. 30, De Finibus, ii. 6, 11, iv. 18, v. 5, 8, 25, Academica, ii
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Critolaus
Critolaus (/kraɪtoʊˈleɪəs/; Greek: Κριτόλαος Kritolaos; c. 200 – c. 118 BC)[1] of Phaselis
Phaselis
was a Greek philosopher of the Peripatetic school. He was one of three philosophers sent to Rome
Rome
in 155 BC (the other two being Carneades
Carneades
and Diogenes of Babylon), where their doctrines fascinated the citizens, but scared the more conservative statesmen. None of his writings survive. He was interested in rhetoric and ethics, and considered pleasure to be an evil. He maintained the Aristotelian doctrine of the eternity of the world, and of the human race in general, directing his arguments against the Stoics.Contents1 Life 2 Philosophy 3 Notes 4 ReferencesLife[edit] He was born in Phaselis, a Greek colony in Lycia, c
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Lyco Of Troas
Lyco of Troas
Lyco of Troas
(/ˈlaɪkoʊ/; Greek: Λύκων Lykon, gen.: Λύκωνος; c. 299 – c. 225 BC[1]), son of Astyanax, was a Peripatetic philosopher and the disciple of Strato, whom he succeeded as the head of the Peripatetic school, c. 269 BC;[1] he held that post for more than forty-four years.Contents1 Life 2 Writings 3 References3.1 Sources 3.2 Attribution:4 Further readingLife[edit] He resided at Pergamon, under the patronage of Eumenes I
Eumenes I
and Attalus I, from whom Antiochus in vain sought to entice him.[2] On several occasions his counsel was of great service to the Athenians.[3] He was celebrated for his eloquence,[4] and for his skill in educating boys. He paid great attention to the body as well as to the mind, and, constantly practising athletic exercises, was exceedingly healthy and robust. Nevertheless, he died of gout at the age of 74
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Aristotle
Aristotle
Aristotle
(/ˈærɪˌstɒtəl/;[3] Greek: Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs, pronounced [aristotélɛːs]; 384–322 BC)[n 1] was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece. Along with Plato, Aristotle
Aristotle
is considered the "Father of Western Philosophy", which inherited almost its entire lexicon from his teachings, including problems and methods of inquiry, so influencing almost all forms of knowledge. Little is known for certain about his life. His father, Nicomachus, died when Aristotle
Aristotle
was a child, and he was brought up by a guardian. At seventeen or eighteen years of age, he joined Plato's Academy
Plato's Academy
in Athens and remained there until the age of thirty-seven (c
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Philo Of Larissa
Larissa
Larissa
(Greek: Λάρισα [ˈlarisa]) is the capital and largest city of the Thessaly
Thessaly
region, the fifth-most populous in Greece
Greece
and capital of the Larissa
Larissa
regional unit. It is a principal agricultural centre and a national transport hub, linked by road and rail with the port of Volos, the cities of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
and Athens
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Carneades
Carneades
Carneades
(/kɑːrˈniːədiːz/; Greek: Καρνεάδης, Karneadēs, "of Carnea"; 214/3–129/8 BC[1]) was an Academic skeptic born in Cyrene. By the year 159 BC, he had started to refute all previous dogmatic doctrines, especially Stoicism, and even the Epicureans whom previous skeptics had spared. As head of the Academy, he was one of three philosophers sent to Rome
Rome
in 155 BC where his lectures on the uncertainty of justice caused consternation among leading politicians. He left no writings and many of his opinions are known only via his successor Clitomachus
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Scholae
Scholae
Scholae
(Greek: Σχολαί) is a Latin
Latin
word, literally meaning "schools" (from the singular schola, school or group) that was used in the late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
to signify a unit of Imperial Guards. The unit survived in the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
until the 12th century
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Epicureanism
Epicureanism
Epicureanism
is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus, founded around 307 BC. Epicurus was an atomic materialist, following in the steps of Democritus. His materialism led him to a general attack on superstition and divine intervention. Following Aristippus—about whom very little is known— Epicurus
Epicurus
believed that what he called "pleasure" was the greatest good, but that the way to attain such pleasure was to live modestly, to gain knowledge of the workings of the world, and to limit one's desires. This would lead one to attain a state of tranquility (ataraxia) and freedom from fear as well as an absence of bodily pain (aponia). The combination of these two states constitutes happiness in its highest form
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Stoicism
Stoicism
Stoicism
is a school of Hellenistic philosophy
Hellenistic philosophy
that flourished throughout the Roman and Greek world until the 3rd century AD. Zeno of Citium founded stoicism in Athens
Athens
in the early 3rd century BC. It was heavily influenced by certain teachings of Socrates, while stoic physics are largely drawn from the teachings of the philosopher Heraclitus
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