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Schistonota
Schistonota
Schistonota
is a suborder of mayflies. One of the differences between this suborder and its sister group, Pannota, concerns the degree of fusion of the wing pads in the final-stage nymph; in Schistonota, the degree of fusion along the mesothorax is more than half the fore-wing length while in Pannota
Pannota
the degree of fusion is less than half that length. Other differences between the two groups include the morphology of the gills and also behavioural differences. Schistonota nymphs are mostly active swimmers, burrowers or sprawlers, while Pannota
Pannota
nymphs are more passive, slow-moving crawlers.[1] The following superfamilies are recognised:[2]Baetoidea Ephemeroidea Heptagenioidea LeptophlebioideaReferences[edit]^ Berner, Lewis; Pescador, Manuel L. (1988). The Mayflies of Florida. University Press of Florida. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-8130-0845-5.  ^ "Ephemoptera: Mayflies"
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Ephemera Danica
Ephemera danica is a species of mayfly in the genus Ephemera.Contents1 Description 2 Life cycle 3 Distribution and habitat 4 See also 5 ReferencesDescription[edit] Ephemera danica can reach an imago size of 15–20 mm (0.6–0.8 in) in males, while females are larger, reaching 16–25 mm (0.6–1.0 in). This mayfly, with its characteristic markings and three tails (Cerci), is the most commonly seen of British Ephemeridae. Imago wings are translucent with dark veining, while in subimago they are dull and yellowish with brown veins. Moreover, forelegs and the tails of the spinners are very much longer than in duns.[1] Mouthparts are non-functional, as adults do not feed.[2][3]Typical curved body posture of E
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Taxonomic Rank
In biological classification, taxonomic rank is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon) in a taxonomic hierarchy. Examples of taxonomic ranks are species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, domain, etc. A given rank subsumes under it less general categories, that is, more specific descriptions of life forms. Above it, each rank is classified within more general categories of organisms and groups of organisms related to each other through inheritance of traits or features from common ancestors. The rank of any species and the description of its genus is basic; which means that to identify a particular organism, it is usually not necessary to specify ranks other than these first two.[2] Consider a particular species, the red fox, Vulpes
Vulpes
vulpes: the next rank above, the genus Vulpes, comprises all the "true" foxes
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Animal
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, reproduce sexually, and grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million in total. Animals range in size from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres (110 ft) long and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The study of animals is called zoology. Aristotle divided animals into those with blood and those without. Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809
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Arthropod
Condylipoda Latreille, 1802An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages. Arthropods form the phylum Euarthropoda,[1][3] which includes insects, arachnids, myriapods, and crustaceans. The term Arthropoda as originally proposed refers to a proposed grouping of Euarthropods and the phylum Onychophora. Arthropods are characterized by their jointed limbs and cuticle made of chitin, often mineralised with calcium carbonate. The arthropod body plan consists of segments, each with a pair of appendages. The rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by moulting. Their versatility has enabled them to become the most species-rich members of all ecological guilds in most environments
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Insect
See text.SynonymsEctognatha EntomidaInsects or Insecta (from Latin
Latin
insectum) are by far the largest group of hexapod invertebrates within the arthropod phylum. Definitions and circumscriptions vary; usually, insects comprise a class within the Phylum
Phylum
Arthropoda. As used here, the term is synonymous with Ectognatha. Insects have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax and abdomen), three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Mesothorax
The mesothorax is the middle of the three segments in the thorax of an insect, and bears the second pair of legs. Its principal sclerites (exoskeletal plates) are the mesonotum (dorsal), the mesosternum (ventral), and the mesopleuron (lateral) on each side. The mesothorax is the segment that bears the forewings in all winged insects, though sometimes these may be reduced or modified, as in beetles (Coleoptera) or Dermaptera, in which they are sclerotized to form the elytra ("wing covers"), and the Strepsiptera, in which they are reduced to form halteres. All adult insects possess legs on the mesothorax. In some groups of insects, the mesonotum is hypertrophied, such as in Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera), in which the anterior portion of the mesonotum (called the mesoscutum, or simply "scutum") forms most of the dorsal surface of the thorax. In these orders, there is also typically a small sclerite attached to the mesonotum that covers the wing base, called the tegula
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Heptagenioidea
Heptagenioidea is a superfamily of mayflies. Members of this superfamily are found in most parts of the world apart from the Arctic and Antarctic, with Heptageniidae being the most widely distributed family. Heptagenioidea probably originated in the Jurassic period when mayflies started breeding in flowing water, the mouthparts and forelegs becoming adapted to passive feeding. The ancestors of the new group had bred in still water, and the opportunities provided by the change in environment encouraged rapid radiation.[1] References[edit]^ Tercedor (1991). Overview and Strategies of Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera. CRC Press. p. 91
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Ephemeroidea
Ephemeroidea is a superfamily of mayflies. Members of this superfamily are found in most parts of the world with the exception of the Arctic, the Antarctic and Australia. The following families are recognised:[1]Behningiidae Ephemeridae Euthyplociidae Palingeniidae Polymitarcydae PotamanthidaeReferences[edit]^ "Ephemoptera: Mayflies". The Tree of Life Web Project
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Baetoidea
Baetoidea is a superfamily of mayflies, which probably includes the most primitive living species. The following families are recognised:[1]Ameletopsidae Ametropodidae Baetidae Oniscigastridae SiphlonuridaeReferences[edit]^ "Ephemoptera: Mayflies". The Tree of Life Web Project
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Leptophlebioidea
Numerous, see textLeptophlebiidae is a family belonging to the Ephemeropterans that are commonly known as the prong-gilled mayflies or leptophlebiids. It is the only family in the superfamily Leptophlebioidea.[1] In North America they occur with about 70 species from 9 genera in freshwater streams and lakes; in Europe they are somewhat less diverse. Globally, this family is much more prevalent and diverse, with about 2000 different species. Leptophlebiids are easily recognized by the forked gills present on the larvae's abdomen, thus their common name.Contents1 Larvae 2 Selected genera 3 References 4 External linksLarvae[edit] Leptophlebiid larvae live in freshwater streams and lakes eating detritus and/or algae. North American species generally cling to rocks, few physiologically equipped for skilled swimming. Like all Ephemeropteran larave, fragile gills line the lateral margins of their abdomen
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Pannota
Pannota is a suborder of mayflies. One of the differences between this suborder and its sister group Schistonota concerns the degree of fusion of the wing pads in the final-stage nymph; in Schistonota, the degree of fusion along the mesothorax is more than half the fore-wing length while in Pannota the degree of fusion is less than half that length. Other differences between the two groups include the morphology of the gills and also behavioural differences. Schistonota nymphs are mostly active swimmers, burrowers and sprawlers, while Pannota nymphs are more passive, slow-moving crawlers.[1] The following superfamilies and families are recognised:[2]Superfamily CaenoideaBaetiscidae Caenidae Neoephemeridae ProsopistomatidaeSuperfamily EphemerelloideaEphemerellidae Leptohyphidae TricorythidaeReferences[edit]^ Berner, Lewis; Pescador, Manuel L. (1988). The Mayflies of Florida. University Press of Florida
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Mayfly
Mayflies (also known as Canadian soldiers[2] in the United States, and as shadflies or fishflies in Canada and the upper Midwestern U.S.; also up-winged flies in the United Kingdom) are aquatic insects belonging to the order Ephemeroptera. This order is part of an ancient group of insects termed the Palaeoptera, which also contains dragonflies and damselflies. Over 3,000 species of mayfly are known worldwide, grouped into over 400 genera in 42 families. Mayflies are relatively primitive insects and exhibit a number of ancestral traits that were probably present in the first flying insects, such as long tails and wings that do not fold flat over the abdomen. Their immature stages are aquatic fresh water forms (called "naiads" or "nymphs"), whose presence indicates a clean, unpolluted environment
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