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Sayan Mountains
Coordinates : 53°15′07″N 94°58′28″E / 53.25194°N 94.97444°E / 53.25194; 94.97444 Mountains of Russia, Mongolia, Kazakhstan and China The Hanging Rock, Western Sayan, Ergaki mountains Lake of mountain spirits Western Sayan, Ergaki mountains The SAYAN MOUNTAINS (Russian : Саяны Sayany; Mongolian : Соёны нуруу, Soyonī nurú; Kogmen Mountains during the period of the Göktürks ) are a mountain range in southern Siberia
Siberia
, Russia
Russia
(the Tyva Republic specifically) and northern Mongolia
Mongolia
. In the past, it served as the border between Mongolia
Mongolia
and Russia
Russia
. The Eastern Sayan extends 1,000 km (621 mi) from the Yenisei River at 92° E to the southwest end of Lake Baikal at 106° E
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Pine
See PINUS CLASSIFICATION for complete taxonomy to species level. See LIST OF PINES BY REGION for list of species by geographic distribution. Range of PinusA PINE is any conifer in the genus PINUS, /ˈpiːnuːs/ , of the family Pinaceae
Pinaceae
. Pinus
Pinus
is the sole genus in the subfamily PINOIDEAE. The Plant List compiled by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Missouri Botanical Garden
Garden
accepts 126 species names of pines as current, together with 35 unresolved species and many more synonyms
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Juniper
See text JUNIPERS are coniferous plants in the genus JUNIPERUS /dʒuːˈnɪpərəs/ of the cypress family Cupressaceae
Cupressaceae
. Depending on taxonomic viewpoint, between 50 and 67 species of juniper are widely distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere, from the Arctic , south to tropical Africa
Africa
, from Ziarat , Pakistan
Pakistan
east to eastern Tibet
Tibet
in the Old World , and in the mountains of Central America . The highest-known Juniper
Juniper
forest occurs at an altitude of 16,000 feet (4,900 m) in south-eastern Tibet
Tibet
and the northern Himalayas
Himalayas
, creating one of the highest tree-lines on earth
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BIRCH
A BIRCH is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus BETULA (/ˈbɛtjʊlə/ ), in the family Betulaceae , which also includes alders , hazels , and hornbeams . It is closely related to the beech -oak family Fagaceae
Fagaceae
. The genus Betula contains 30 to 60 known taxa of which 11 are on the IUCN 2011 Green List of Threatened Species. They are a typically rather short-lived pioneer species widespread in the Northern Hemisphere, particularly in northern temperate and boreal climates
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Larch
About 10–14; see text LARCHES are conifers in the genus LARIX, in the family Pinaceae . Growing from 20 to 45 m tall (65 to 147 ft), they are native to much of the cooler temperate northern hemisphere, on lowlands in the north and high on mountains further south. Larches are among the dominant plants in the boreal forests of Siberia
Siberia
and Canada. Although they are conifers, larches are deciduous trees that lose their needles in the autumn. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Species and taxonomy * 3 Diseases * 4 Uses * 5 References * 5.1 Notes * 5.2 Bibliography * 6 Further reading * 7 External links DESCRIPTION Larch
Larch
shoots are dimorphic, with leaves borne singly on long shoots typically 10–50 centimetres long :47 and bearing several buds , and in dense clusters of 20-50 needles on short shoots only 1–2 mm long with only a single bud
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Russian Academy Of Sciences
The RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (RAS; Russian : Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к (РАН) Rossíiskaya akadémiya naúk) consists of the national academy of Russia
Russia
; a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation; and additional scientific and social units such as libraries, publishing units, and hospitals. Headquartered in Moscow
Moscow
, the Academy (RAS) is considered a civil, self-governed, non-commercial organization chartered by the Government of Russia
Russia
. It combines the members of RAS (see below) and scientists employed by institutions. The Academy currently includes around 650 institutions and 55,000 scientific researchers
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Selenga
The SELENGA RIVER (SELENGE RIVER, Mongolian : Сэлэнгэ мөрөн, Selenge mörön; Buryat : Сэлэнгэ гол, Selenge gol, Сэлэнгэ мүрэн, Selenge müren; Russian : Селенга́) is a major river in Mongolia
Mongolia
and Buryatia , Russia
Russia
. Its source rivers are the Ider River and the Delgermörön river. It flows into Lake Baikal and has a length of 992 kilometres (616 mi) or 1,024 kilometres (636 mi), according to other sources. The Selenga River is the headwaters of the Yenisei - Angara River system. Carrying 935 cubic metres per second (33,000 cu ft/s) of water into Lake Baikal , it comprises almost half of the riverine inflow and forms a wide delta of 680 square kilometres (260 sq mi), when it reaches the lake. The name derives from Mongolian verb "seleh" (to swim)
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Orkhon Valley
ORKHON VALLEY CULTURAL LANDSCAPE (Mongolian : Орхоны хөндийн соёлын дурсгал) sprawls along the banks of the Orkhon River in Central Mongolia , some 320 km west from the capital Ulaanbaatar . It was inscribed by UNESCO in the World Heritage List as representing evolution of nomadic pastoral traditions spanning more than two millennia. (See List of World Heritage Sites in Mongolia ) IMPORTANCE Location of the Orkhon Valley. For many centuries, the Orkhon Valley was viewed as the seat of the imperial power of the steppes. The first evidence comes from a stone stele with runic inscriptions , which was erected in the valley by Bilge Khan , an 8th-century ruler of the Göktürk Empire . Some 25 miles to the north of the stele, in the shadow of the sacred forest-mountain Ötüken , was his Ördü , or nomadic capital
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Alder
ALDER is the common name of a genus of flowering plants (ALNUS) belonging to the birch family Betulaceae . The genus comprises about 35 species of monoecious trees and shrubs , a few reaching a large size, distributed throughout the north temperate zone with a few species extending into Central America , as well as the northern and southern Andes . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Description * 3 Ecology * 3.1 Nitrogen fixation * 3.2 Parasites * 4 Uses * 5 Classification * 6 Hybrids * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links ETYMOLOGYThe common name alder evolved from Old English alor, which in turn is derived from Proto-Germanic root aliso. The generic name Alnus is the equivalent Latin name
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Rhododendron
FORMER SUBGENERA: * Candidastrum * Mumeazalea * Pentanthera * Tsutsusi RHODODENDRON /ˌroʊdəˈdɛndrən/ (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
ῥόδον rhódon "rose" and δένδρον déndron "tree") is a genus of 1,024 species of woody plants in the heath family (Ericaceae), either evergreen or deciduous , and found mainly in Asia
Asia
, although it is also widespread throughout the highlands of the Appalachian Mountains of North America
North America
. It is the national flower of Nepal
Nepal
. Most species have brightly coloured flowers which bloom from late winter through to early summer. Azaleas make up two subgenera of Rhododendron. They are distinguished from "true" rhododendrons by having only five anthers per flower
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Tuva Depression
TUVA DEPRESSION (Russian : Тувинская котловина, tr. Tuvinskaya kotlovina) is located among mountains of South Central Siberia — the Tannu-Ola Mountains , Eastern Sayans and Western Sayans , and the Altay Mountains region. It is part of a region with a combination of raised lands and depressions. This Tuva Depression is within the Tuva Republic . The elevation of the depression varies between 500–1,000 metres (1,600–3,300 ft). SEE ALSO * Depression (geology) * Kuznetsk Depression * Minusinsk Depression * Geography of South-Central Siberia REFERENCES * ^ "Central Siberia". Archived from the original on 2007-07-01. Retrieved 2007-01-06
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Lykov Family
The LYKOV FAMILY (Russian : Лыков) was a Russian family of Old Believers . The family of six is known for spending 42 years in complete isolation from human society in an otherwise uninhabited upland of Abakan Range , in Tashtypsky District of Khakassia (southern Siberia ). Since 1988, only one daughter, Agafia , survives. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Family members * 3 Publishings * 4 References HISTORYIn 1936, their religion was under threat. After Karp Lykov's brother was killed by a communist patrol, Karp and Akulina Lykov with their two children, Savin and Natalia, fled their hometown of Lykovo (Tyumen Oblast ) eastward. Two more children, Dmitry and Agafia, were born during the isolation. They ended up in a dwelling in the taiga , near Yerinat River (Abakan river basin), 250 kilometres (160 mi) from any settlement. In 1978 their location was discovered by a helicopter pilot, who was flying a geological group into the region
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Mana River
MANA (Russian : Ма́на) is a river in Krasnoyarsk Krai , Russia, making a confluence with the Yenisey River some 16 kilometres (10 mi) from Krasnoyarsk city. The Mana has a length of 475 kilometres (295 mi) and a basin area of 9,320 square kilometres (3,600 sq mi). It flows north from the Eastern Sayan mountains to the Yenisey River . At the place of confluence the Ust-Mana village is located. The upper river called Pravaya Mana is a typical mountain river having many rapids, the lower part is calm, winding among the high hills. The river freezes over in the first half of November, ice breaking usually begins in the second half of April. The Mana River is a popular place of rafting tourism, mostly on the calm, easily passable part of the river beginning from the Beret village or more difficult, from the village of Bolshoy Ungut . The place called Manskiy Plyos near Ust-Mana is very popular for holding various festivals , such as the traditional festival of bard songs
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Vasily Bartold
VASILY VLADIMIROVICH BARTOLD (Russian : Васи́лий Влади́мирович Барто́льд, Polish : Wasilij Władimirowicz Bartołd, German : Wilhelm Barthold, also known as WILHELM BARTHOLD; 15 November 1869 – 19 August 1930) was a Russian and Soviet historian of German descent who specialized in the history of Islam
Islam
and the Turkic peoples ( Turkology ). Bartold's lectures at the University of Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
were annually interrupted by extended field trips to Muslim countries. In the two volumes of his dissertation (Turkestan down to the Mongol Invasion, 1898-1900), he pointed out the many benefits the Muslim world derived from Mongol rule after the initial conquests. Bartold was the first to publish obscure information from the early Arab historians on Kievan Rus\'
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Buryatia
The REPUBLIC OF BURYATIA (Russian : Респу́блика Буря́тия, tr. Respublika Buryatiya; IPA: ; Buryat : Буряад Республика, Buryaad Respublika, ) is a federal subject of Russia
Russia
(a republic ), located in Asia
Asia
in Siberia
Siberia
. Its capital is the city of Ulan-Ude . Its area is 351,300 square kilometers (135,600 sq mi) with a population of 972,021 (2010 Census )
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