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Sayan Mountains
The Sayan Mountains
Sayan Mountains
(Russian: Саяны Sajany; Mongolian: Соёны нуруу, Soyonï nurû; Kogmen Mountains during the period of the Göktürks[1]) are a mountain range in southern Siberia, Russia
Russia
(the Tyva Republic
Tyva Republic
specifically) and northern Mongolia. In the past, it served as the border between Mongolia
Mongolia
and Russia.[2] The Sayan Mountains' towering peaks and cool lakes southwest of Tuva give rise to the tributaries that merge to become one of Siberia's major rivers, the Yenisei River, which flows north over 2000 miles to the Arctic Ocean
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Encyclopædia Britannica
The Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
( Latin
Latin
for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language
English-language
encyclopaedia. It is written by about 100 full-time editors and more than 4,000 contributors, who have included 110 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
winners and five American presidents. The 2010 version of the 15th edition, which spans 32 volumes[1] and 32,640 pages, was the last printed edition; digital content and distribution has continued since then. The Britannica is the oldest English-language
English-language
encyclopaedia still in production. It was first published between 1768 and 1771 in the Scottish capital of Edinburgh, as three volumes
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Pine
See Pinus classification
Pinus classification
for complete taxonomy to species level. See list of pines by region for list of species by geographic distribution.Range of PinusA pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus, /ˈpiːnuːs/,[1] of the family Pinaceae
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Mountain Pass
A mountain pass is a navigable route through a mountain range or over a ridge. Since many of the world's mountain ranges have presented formidable barriers to travel, passes have been important since before recorded history, and have played a key role in trade, war, and migration. At lower elevations it may be called a hill pass. The highest vehicle-accessible pass in the world appears to be Mana Pass, located in the Himalayas
Himalayas
on the border between India
India
and Tibet.Contents1 Overview 2 Synonyms 3 Around the world 4 Gallery 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksOverview[edit]Idealised mountain pass represented as the green line; the saddle point is in red.Mountain passes make use of a gap, saddle, or col (also sometimes a notch, the low point in a ridge)
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Selenga
The Selenga River
Selenga River
(Selenge River, Mongolian: Сэлэнгэ мөрөн, Selenge mörön; Russian Buryat: Сэлэнгэ гол / Сэлэнгэ мүрэн, Selenge gol / Selenge müren; Russian: Селенга́, IPA: [sʲɪlʲɪnˈɡa]) is a major river in Mongolia
Mongolia
and Buryatia, Russia. Its source rivers are the Ider River and the Delgermörön
Delgermörön
river. It flows into Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal
and has a length of 992 kilometres (616 mi)[1][2] or 1,024 kilometres (636 mi), according to other sources.[3] The Selenga River
Selenga River
is the headwaters of the Yenisei- Angara River
Angara River
system
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Orkhon Valley
Orkhon Valley
Orkhon Valley
Cultural Landscape (Mongolian: Орхоны хөндийн соёлын дурсгал) sprawls along the banks of the Orkhon River
Orkhon River
in Central Mongolia, some 320 km west from the capital Ulaanbaatar. It was inscribed by UNESCO
UNESCO
in the World Heritage List as representing evolution of nomadic pastoral traditions spanning more than two millennia. (See List of World Heritage Sites in Mongolia) Importance[edit]Location of the Orkhon Valley.For many centuries, the Orkhon Valley
Orkhon Valley
was viewed as the seat of the imperial power of the steppes. The first evidence comes from a stone stele with runic inscriptions, which was erected in the valley by Bilge Khan, an 8th-century ruler of the Göktürk Empire. Some 25 miles to the north of the stele, in the shadow of the sacred forest-mountain Ötüken, was his Ördü, or nomadic capital
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Summit
A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically, a summit is a local maximum in elevation. The topographic terms "acme", "apex", "peak", and "zenith" are synonymous.Contents1 Definition1.1 Western United States 1.2 Summit
Summit
climbing equipment2 See also 3 References 4 External linksDefinition[edit] The term "top" is generally used only for a mountain peak that is located some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are often considered subsummits (or subpeaks) of the higher peak, and are considered as part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top
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Tuva Depression
Tuva Depression (Russian: Тувинская котловина, tr. Tuvinskaya kotlovina) is located among mountains of South Central Siberia — the Tannu-Ola Mountains, Eastern Sayans and Western Sayans, and the Altay Mountains region. It is part of a region with a combination of raised lands and depressions.[1] This Tuva Depression is within the Tuva Republic. The elevation of the depression varies between 500–1,000 metres (1,600–3,300 ft). See also[edit]Depression (geology) Kuznetsk Depression Minusinsk Depression Geography of South-Central SiberiaReferences[edit]^ "Central Siberia". Archived from the original on 2007-07-01. Retrieved 2007-01-06. External links[edit]Central SiberiaCoordinates: 53°42′00″N 91°41′00″E / 53.7000°N 91.6833°E / 53.7000; 91.6833This Tuva location article is a stub
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Larch
About 10–11; see textLarches are conifers in the genus Larix, of the family Pinaceae (subfamily Laricoideae). Growing from 20 to 45 m (66 to 148 ft) tall,[1] they are native to much of the cooler temperate northern hemisphere, on lowlands in the north and high on mountains further south. Larches are among the dominant plants in the boreal forests of Siberia
Siberia
and Canada. Although they are conifers, larches are deciduous trees that lose their needles in the autumn.Contents1 Description and distribution 2 Species and taxonomy2.1 North American species 2.2 Eurasian species2.2.1 Northern Eurasian species with short bracts 2.2.2 Southern Euroasiatic species with long bracts3 Diseases 4 Uses 5 References5.1 Notes 5.2 Bibliography6 Further reading 7 External linksDescription and distribution[edit] Larches can reach 50–60 m ( Larix
Larix
occidentalis)
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Juniper
See textJunipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus /dʒuːˈnɪpərəs/[1] of the cypress family Cupressaceae. Depending on taxonomic viewpoint, between 50 and 67 species of juniper are widely distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere, from the Arctic, south to tropical Africa, from Ziarat, Pakistan
Pakistan
east to eastern Tibet
Tibet
in the Old World, and in the mountains of Central America
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Metamorphic Rocks
Metamorphic
Metamorphic
rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".[1] The original rock (protolith) is subjected to heat (temperatures greater than 150 to 200 °C) and pressure (150 megapascals (1,500 bar))[clarify],[2] causing profound physical or chemical change. The protolith may be a sedimentary, igneous, or existing metamorphic rock. Metamorphic
Metamorphic
rocks make up a large part of the Earth's crust and form 12% of the Earth's land surface.[3] They are classified by texture and by chemical and mineral assemblage (metamorphic facies). They may be formed simply by being deep beneath the Earth's surface, subjected to high temperatures and the great pressure of the rock layers above it. They can form from tectonic processes such as continental collisions, which cause horizontal pressure, friction and distortion
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Birch
A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula (/ˈbɛtjʊlə/),[2] in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams. It is closely related to the beech-oak family Fagaceae. The genus Betula contains 30 to 60 known taxa of which 11 are on the IUCN 2011 Green List of Threatened Species. They are a typically rather short-lived pioneer species widespread in the Northern Hemisphere, particularly in northern areas of temperate climates and in boreal climates.[3]Contents1 Description1.1 Flower and fruit2 Taxonomy2.1 Subdivision 2.2 Etymology3 Ecology 4 Uses4.1 Cultivation 4.2 Medical 4.3 Paper 4.4 Tonewood5 Culture 6 See also 7 References 8 Sources 9 External linksDescription[edit]The front and rear sides of a piece of birch bark Birch
Birch
species are generally small to medium-sized trees or shrubs, mostly of northern temperate and boreal climates
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Alder
Alder
Alder
is the common name of a genus of flowering plants (Alnus) belonging to the birch family Betulaceae. The genus comprises about 35[2] species of monoecious trees and shrubs, a few reaching a large size, distributed throughout the north temperate zone with a few species extending into Central America, as well as the northern and southern Andes.[1]Contents1 Etymology 2 Description 3 Ecology3.1 Nitrogen
Nitrogen
fixation 3.2 Parasites4 Uses 5 Classification 6 Hybrids 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksEtymology[edit] The common name alder evolved from Old English alor, which in turn is derived from Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
root[3] aliso. The generic name Alnus is the equivalent Latin
Latin
name
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Rhododendron
Former subgenera:Candidastrum Mumeazalea Pentanthera Tsutsusi Rhododendron
Rhododendron
/ˌroʊdəˈdɛndrən/ (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
ῥόδον rhódon "rose" and δένδρον déndron "tree")[3][4] is a genus of 1,024 species of woody plants in the heath family (Ericaceae), either evergreen or deciduous, and found mainly in Asia, although it is also widespread throughout the highlands of the Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
of North America. It is the national flower of Nepal. Most species have brightly coloured flowers which bloom from late winter through to early summer.[5] Azaleas
Azaleas
make up two subgenera of Rhododendron
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Berberis
List of Berberis
Berberis
and Mahonia
Mahonia
species Berberis
Berberis
(/ˈbɜːrbərɪs/), commonly known as barberry,[1] is a large genus of deciduous and evergreen shrubs from 1–5 m (3.3–16.4 ft) tall, found throughout temperate and subtropical regions of the world (apart from Australia). Species diversity is greatest in South America
South America
and Asia; Europe, Africa
Africa
and North America have native species as well. The best-known Berberis
Berberis
species is the European barberry, Berberis
Berberis
vulgaris, which is common in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, and central Asia, and has been widely introduced in North America
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Ribes
See text.The range of RibesSynonyms[2][3]Grossularia Miller Ribesium Medikus Ribes
Ribes
/ˈraɪbiːz/[4] is a genus of about 150 known species[5] of flowering plants native throughout the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. It is usually treated as the only genus in the family Grossulariaceae, but a few taxonomists place the gooseberry species in a separate genus of Grossularia. Sometimes Ribes
Ribes
is instead included in the family Saxifragaceae.Contents1 Cultivation1.1 Medicinal2 Ecology 3 Selected species 4 References 5 External linksCultivation[edit] The genus Ribes
Ribes
includes the edible currants (blackcurrant, redcurrant, white currant), the gooseberry, and several hybrid varieties. It should not be confused with the dried currant used in cakes and puddings, which is a small-fruited cultivar of grape (Zante currant)
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