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Satellite Navigation
A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system that uses satellites to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning. It allows small electronic receivers to determine their location (longitude, latitude, and altitude/elevation) to high precision (within a few metres) using time signals transmitted along a line of sight by radio from satellites. The system can be used for providing position, navigation or for tracking the position of something fitted with a receiver (satellite tracking). The signals also allow the electronic receiver to calculate the current local time to high precision, which allows time synchronisation. Satnav systems operate independently of any telephonic or internet reception, though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the positioning information generated. A satellite navigation system with global coverage may be termed a global navigation satellite system (GNSS)
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Doppler Effect
The Doppler effect
Doppler effect
(or the Doppler shift) is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave for an observer who is moving relative to the wave source.[1] It is named after the Austrian physicist Christian Doppler, who described the phenomenon in 1842. A common example of Doppler shift is the change of pitch heard when a vehicle sounding a horn approaches and recedes from an observer. Compared to the emitted frequency, the received frequency is higher during the approach, identical at the instant of passing by, and lower during the recession.[2] The reason for the Doppler effect
Doppler effect
is that when the source of the waves is moving towards the observer, each successive wave crest is emitted from a position closer to the observer than the previous wave.[2][3] Therefore, each wave takes slightly less time to reach the observer than the previous wave
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India
India, officially the Republic
Republic
of India
India
(IAST: Bhārat Gaṇarājya),[e] is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan
Pakistan
to the west;[f] China, Nepal, and Bhutan
Bhutan
to the northeast; and Myanmar
Myanmar
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India
India
is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the Maldives
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Fix (position)
In position fixing navigation, a position fix (PF) or simply a fix is a position derived from measuring external reference points. In nautical applications, the term is generally used with manual or visual techniques such as the use of intersecting visual or radio position lines rather than the use of more automated and accurate electronic methods such as GPS; in aviation, use of electronic navigation aids is more common. A visual fix can be made by using any sighting device with a bearing indicator. Two or more objects of known position are sighted, and the bearings recorded. Bearing lines are then plotted on a chart through the locations of the sighted items. The intersection of these lines is then the current position of the vessel. Usually, a fix is where two or more position lines intersect at any given time
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Transmitter
In electronics and telecommunications a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device which produces radio waves with an antenna. The transmitter itself generates a radio frequency alternating current, which is applied to the antenna. When excited by this alternating current, the antenna radiates radio waves. Transmitters are necessary component parts of all electronic devices that communicate by radio, such as radio and television broadcasting stations, cell phones, walkie-talkies, wireless computer networks, Bluetooth
Bluetooth
enabled devices, garage door openers, two-way radios in aircraft, ships, spacecraft, radar sets and navigational beacons. The term transmitter is usually limited to equipment that generates radio waves for communication purposes; or radiolocation, such as radar and navigational transmitters
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Longwave
In radio, longwave, long wave or long-wave,[1] and commonly abbreviated LW,[2] refers to parts of the radio spectrum with wavelengths longer than what was originally called the medium-wave broadcasting band. The term is historic, dating from the early 20th century, when the radio spectrum was considered to consist of longwave (LW), medium-wave (MW), and short-wave (SW) radio bands. Most modern radio systems and devices use wavelengths which would then have been considered 'ultra-short'. In contemporary usage, the term longwave is not defined precisely, and its intended meaning varies. It may be used for radio wavelengths longer than 1,000 m[2] i.e. frequencies[3] up to 300 kilohertz (kHz),[4][5] including the International Telecommunications Union's (ITU's) low frequency (LF, 30–300 kHz) and very low frequency (VLF, 3–30 kHz) bands
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Gee (navigation)
Gee, sometimes written GEE,[a] was a radio navigation system used by the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
during World War II. It measured the time delay between two radio signals to produce a fix, with accuracy on the order of a few hundred metres at ranges up to about 350 miles (560 km). It was the first hyperbolic navigation system to be used operationally, entering service with RAF Bomber Command
RAF Bomber Command
in 1942. Gee was devised by Robert Dippy as a short-range blind landing system to improve safety during night operations, but during development by the Telecommunications Research Establishment
Telecommunications Research Establishment
(TRE) at Swanage
Swanage
it was found the range was far better than expected and it developed into a long-range general navigation system
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LORAN
LORAN, short for long range navigation,[a] was a hyperbolic radio navigation system developed in the United States
United States
during World War II. It was similar to the UK's Gee system but operated at lower frequencies in order to provide an improved range up to 1,500 miles (2,400 km) with an accuracy of tens of miles. It was first used for ship convoys crossing the Atlantic Ocean, and then by long-range patrol aircraft, but found its main use on the ships and aircraft operating in the Pacific theatre. LORAN, in its original form, was an expensive system to implement, requiring a cathode ray tube (CRT) display. This limited use to the military and large commercial users. Automated receivers became available in the 1950s, but the same improved electronics led to new systems with higher accuracy
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Decca Navigator System
The Decca Navigator System
Decca Navigator System
was a hyperbolic radio navigation system which allowed ships and aircraft to determine their position by receiving radio signals from fixed navigational beacons. The system used phase comparison of low frequencies from 70 to 129 kHz, as opposed to pulse timing systems like Gee and LORAN. This made it much easier to implement the receivers using 1940s electronics. The system was invented in the US, but development was carried out by Decca in the UK. It was first deployed by the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
during World War II when the Allied forces needed a system which could be used to achieve accurate landings and was not known to the Germans and thus free of jamming. After the war it was extensively developed around the UK and later used in many areas around the world
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Multi-Functional Transport Satellite
Multifunctional Transport Satellites (MTSAT) were a series of weather and aviation control satellites. They are replaced by Himawari 8
Himawari 8
on 7 July 2015. They were geostationary satellites owned and operated by the Japanese Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism and the Japan
Japan
Meteorological Agency (JMA), and provide coverage for the hemisphere centred on 140° East; this includes Japan
Japan
and Australia
Australia
who are the principal users of the satellite imagery that MTSAT provides. They replace the GMS-5
GMS-5
satellite, also known as Himawari 5
Himawari 5
(“himawari” or “ひまわり” meaning “sunflower”). They can provide imagery in five wavelength bands — visible and four infrared, including the water vapour channel
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Orbital Period
The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars. For objects in the Solar System, this is often referred to as the sidereal period, determined by a 360° revolution of one celestial body around another, e.g. the Earth
Earth
orbiting the Sun. The name sidereal is added as it implies that the object returns to the same position relative to the fixed stars projected in the sky. When describing orbits of binary stars, the orbital period is usually referred to as just the period
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Orbital Planes
The orbital plane of a revolving body is the geometric plane on which its orbit lies. A common example would be the centers of a massive body, of an orbiting body, and of the orbiting object at another time. The orbital plane is defined in relation to a reference plane by two parameters: inclination (i) and longitude of the ascending node (Ω). Three non-collinear points in space suffice to determine the orbital plane. By definition, the reference plane for the Solar System
Solar System
is usually considered to be Earth's orbital plane
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Medium Earth Orbit
Medium Earth
Earth
orbit (MEO), sometimes called intermediate circular orbit (ICO), is the region of space around the Earth
Earth
above low Earth
Earth
orbit (altitude of 2,000 km (1,243 mi)) and below geostationary orbit (altitude of 35,786 km (22,236 mi)).[1] The most common use for satellites in this region is for navigation, communication, and geodetic/space environment science.[1] The most common altitude is approximately 20,200 kilometres (12,552 mi)), which yields an orbital period of 12 hours, as used, for example, by the Global Positioning System
Global Positioning System
(GPS).[1] Other satellites in medium Earth
Earth
orbit include Glonass (with an altitude of 19,100 kilometres (11,868 mi))[citation needed] and Galileo (with an altitude of 23,222 kilometres (14,429 mi))[2] constellations
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Satellite Constellation
A satellite constellation is a group of artificial satellites working in concert. Such a constellation can be considered to be a number of satellites with coordinated ground coverage, operating together under shared control, synchronized so that they overlap well in coverage, the period in which a satellite or other spacecraft is visible above the local horizon.Contents1 Overview 2 Walker Constellation 3 Communications satellite constellations 4 See also4.1 Example satellite constellations4.1.1 Types 4.1.2 In use 4.1.3 Proposals 4.1.4 Defunct5 References 6 External linksOverview[edit] Low Earth orbiting satellites (LEOs) are often deployed in satellite constellations, because the coverage area provided by a single LEO satellite only covers a small area that moves as the satellite travels at the high angular velocity needed to maintain its orbit
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Japan
Coordinates: 35°N 136°E / 35°N 136°E / 35; 136Japan 日本国 Nippon-koku or Nihon-kokuFlagImperial SealAnthem: "Kimigayo" 君が代"His Imperial Majesty's Reign"[2][3] Government
Government
Seal of JapanGo-Shichi no Kiri (五七桐)Area controlled by Japan
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France
France
France
(French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana
French Guiana
in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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