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Santalum Album
Santalum
Santalum
album, or Indian sandalwood, is a small tropical tree, and is the most commonly known source of sandalwood. It is native to India, Indonesia, and the Malay Archipelago.[2] Certain cultures place great significance on its fragrant and medicinal qualities. It is also considered sacred in some religions and is used in different religious traditions. The high value of the species has caused its past exploitation, to the point where the wild population is vulnerable to extinction. Indian sandalwood still commands high prices for its essential oil, but due to lack of sizable trees it is no longer used for fine woodworking as before. The plant is widely cultivated and long lived, although harvest is viable after 40 years
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Conservation Status
The conservation status of a group of organisms (for instance, a species) indicates whether the group still exists and how likely the group is to become extinct in the near future
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Hemiparasite
A parasitic plant is a plant that derives some or all of its nutritional requirements from another living plant. They make up about 1% of angiosperms and are in almost every biome in the world. All parasitic plants have modified roots, named haustoria (singular: haustorium), which penetrate the host plants, connecting them to the conductive system – either the xylem, the phloem, or both. This provides them with the ability to extract water and nutrients from the host. Parasitic plants are classified depending on where the parasitic plant latches onto the host and the amount of nutrients it requires.[1] Some parasitic plants are able to locate their host plants by detecting chemicals in the air or soil given off by host shoots or roots, respectively
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Leaf Shape
The following is a defined list of terms which are used to describe leaf morphology in the description and taxonomy of plants. Leaves may be simple (a single leaf blade or lamina) or compound (with several leaflets). The edge of the leaf may be regular or irregular, may be smooth or bearing hair, bristles or spines. For more terms describing other aspects of leaves besides their overall morphology see the leaf article.Chart illustrating leaf morphology termsContents1 Leaf
Leaf
structure 2 Leaf
Leaf
and leaflet shapes 3 Edge 4 Leaf
Leaf
folding 5 Latin descriptions 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External links Leaf
Leaf
structure[edit]A ternate compound leaf with a petiole but no rachis (or rachillae)Leaves of most plants include a flat structure called the blade or lamina, but not all leaves are flat, some are cylindrical
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Fruit
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds. Edible fruits, in particular, have propagated with the movements of humans and animals in a symbiotic relationship as a means for seed dispersal and nutrition; in fact, humans and many animals have become dependent on fruits as a source of food.[1] Accordingly, fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world's agricultural output, and some (such as the apple and the pomegranate) have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings. In common language usage, "fruit" normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant that are sweet or sour, and edible in the raw state, such as apples, bananas, grapes, lemons, oranges, and strawberries
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Panchkhal
Panchkhal
Panchkhal
is a Municipality
Municipality
in Kabhrepalanchok District in the Bagmati Zone of central Nepal. The Panchkhal
Panchkhal
Valley, intermontane basin developed in the southeast of the Kathmandu Valley is located within the eastern flank of a synclinorium in Kavre District . The Jhiku Khola, a tributary of the Sun Koshi River is characterised by development of geomorphic surfaces at different elevations formed after the last glacial retreat in the area
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Nepal
Nepal
Nepal
(/nəˈpɔːl/ ( listen);[12] Nepali: नेपाल  Nepāl [neˈpal]), officially the Federal Democratic Republic
Republic
of Nepal
Nepal
(Nepali: सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल Sanghiya Loktāntrik Ganatantra Nepāl),[13] is a landlocked country in South Asia
South Asia
located in the Himalaya. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area.[2][14] It borders China
China
in the north and India
India
in the south, east, and west while Bangladesh
Bangladesh
is located within only 27 km (17 mi) of its southeastern tip and Bhutan
Bhutan
is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim
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Nomenclature
Nomenclature is a system of names or terms, or the rules for forming these terms in a particular field of arts or sciences. Nomenclature is the system of assignment of names given to organic compounds.[1] The principles of naming vary from the relatively informal conventions of everyday speech to the internationally agreed principles, rules and recommendations that govern the formation and use of the specialist terms used in scientific and any other disciplines.[2] Naming "things" is a part of general human communication using words and language: it is an aspect of everyday taxonomy as people distinguish the objects of their experience, together with their similarities and differences, which observers identify, name and classify
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Robert Brown (botanist, Born 1773)
Robert Brown FRSE FRS FLS MWS (21 December 1773 – 10 June 1858) was a Scottish botanist and palaeobotanist who made important contributions to botany largely through his pioneering use of the microscope. His contributions include one of the earliest detailed descriptions of the cell nucleus and cytoplasmic streaming; the observation of Brownian motion; early work on plant pollination and fertilisation, including being the first to recognise the fundamental difference between gymnosperms and angiosperms; and some of the earliest studies in palynology
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Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae
Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van Diemen (Prodromus of the Flora
Flora
of New Holland and Van Diemen's Land) is a flora of Australia written by botanist Robert Brown and published in 1810.[1] Often referred to as Prodromus Flora
Flora
Novae Hollandiae, or by its standard botanical abbreviation Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland.,[2] it was the first attempt at a survey of the Australian flora. It described over 2040 species, over half of which were published for the first time.[3] Brown's Prodromus was originally published as Volume One, and following the Praemonenda (Preface), page numbering commences on page 145. Sales of the Prodromus were so poor, however, that Brown withdrew it from sale
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Alex George
Alexander Segger George AM (born 4 April 1939) is a Western Australian botanist. He is the authority on the plant genera Banksia
Banksia
and Dryandra. The "bizarre" Restionaceae
Restionaceae
genus Alexgeorgea
Alexgeorgea
was named in his honour in 1976.Contents1 Early life 2 Career 3 Honours 4 Selected publications 5 References5.1 Inline citations 5.2 General referencesEarly life[edit] Alex George
Alex George
was born in East Fremantle, Western Australia
Western Australia
on 4 April 1939.[citation needed] Career[edit] George joined the Western Australian Herbarium as a laboratory assistant at the age of twenty in 1959. He worked under Charles Gardner for a year before the latter's retirement, and partly credits him with rekindling an interest in banksias
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Santalum Spicatum
Santalum spicatum, the Australian sandalwood, is a tree native to semiarid[1] areas at the edge of Southwest Australia. The Noongar peoples know the plant as uilarac, waang, wolgol or wollgat.[2] It is traded as sandalwood, and its valuable oil has been used as an aromatic, a medicine, and a food source. S. spicatum is one of four high-value Santalum species occurring in Australia.Contents1 Description1.1 Composition of oils2 Commercial use 3 Cultivation 4 Host species 5 ReferencesDescription[edit] It is one of four species of the family Santalaceae to occur in Western Australia. It has a similar distribution to quandong (Santalum acuminatum) and is a hemiparasite requiring macronutrients from the roots of hosts. It has a shrubby to small tree habit, but can grow to 6 metres and is tolerant of drought and salt. The foliage is grey-green in colour. The fruit of S. spicatum is spherical, about 3 cm in diameter and is orange
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India
India, officially the Republic
Republic
of India
India
(IAST: Bhārat Gaṇarājya),[e] is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan
Pakistan
to the west;[f] China, Nepal, and Bhutan
Bhutan
to the northeast; and Myanmar
Myanmar
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India
India
is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the Maldives
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Vulnerable Species
A vulnerable species is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature
as likely to become endangered unless the circumstances that are threatening its survival and reproduction improve. Vulnerability is mainly caused by habitat loss or destruction of the species home. Vulnerable habitat or species are monitored and can become increasingly threatened
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China
China, officially the People's Republic
People's Republic
of China
China
(PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia
East Asia
and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area,[k][19] depending on the source consulted. China
China
also has the most neighbor countries in the world
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Sri Lanka
Coordinates: 7°N 81°E / 7°N 81°E / 7; 81Democratic Socialist Republic
Republic
of Sri Lanka ශ්‍රී ලංකා ප්‍රජාතාන්ත්‍රික සමාජවාදී ජනරජය (Sinhalese) Srī Lankā prajātāntrika samājavādī janarajaya இலங்கை ஜனநாயக சோசலிச குடியரசு (Tamil) Ilaṅkai jaṉanāyaka sōsalisa kuṭiyarasuFlagEmblemAnthem: "Sri Lanka
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