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Sanhedrin
The SANHEDRIN (Hebrew: סַנְהֶדְרִין‎ sanhedrîn, Greek : Συνέδριον, synedrion , "sitting together," hence "assembly " or "council") was an assembly of twenty-three to seventy-one men appointed in every city in the Land of Israel
Israel
. In the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
, Moses
Moses
and the Israelites were commanded by God to establish courts of judges who were given full authority over the people of Israel, who were commanded by God to obey every word the judges instructed and every law they established. Judges in ancient Israel
Israel
were the religious leaders and Teachers of the nation of Israel. The Mishnah
Mishnah
arrives at the number twenty-three based on an exegetical derivation: it must be possible for a "community " to vote for both conviction and exoneration
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Tzedakah
TZEDAKAH or Ṣ\'DAQAH in Classical Hebrew (Hebrew : צדקה‎; Arabic : صدقة‎‎), is a Hebrew word literally meaning justice or righteousness but commonly used to signify charity , though it is a different concept from charity because tzedakah is an obligation and charity is typically understood as a spontaneous act of goodwill and a marker of generosity. It is based on the Hebrew word (צדק, Tzedek ) meaning righteousness , fairness or justice , and it is related to the Hebrew word Tzadik meaning righteous as an adjective (or righteous individual as a noun in the form of a substantive ). In Judaism
Judaism
, tzedakah refers to the religious obligation to do what is right and just, which Judaism
Judaism
emphasises are important parts of living a spiritual life
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Tzniut
The term TZNIUT (Hebrew : צניעות‎, tzniut, Sephardi pronunciation, tzeniut(h); Ashkenazi pronunciation, tznius, "modesty ", or "privacy ") is used within Judaism
Judaism
, and has its greatest influence as a concept within Orthodox Judaism
Judaism
. It is used to describe both the character trait of modesty and humility , as well as a group of Jewish laws pertaining to conduct in general, and especially between the sexes. The term is frequently used with regard to the rules of dress for women
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Aruch HaShulchan
ARUCH HASHULCHAN ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: ערוך השולחן) is a chapter-by-chapter restatement of the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
(the latter being the most influential codification of halakhah in the post-Talmudic era). Compiled and written by Rabbi Yechiel Michel Epstein (1829–1908), the work attempts to be a clear, organized summary of the sources for each chapter of the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
and its commentaries, with special emphasis on the positions of the Jerusalem Talmud
Talmud
and Maimonides
Maimonides

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Mishnah Berurah
The MISHNAH BERURAH (Hebrew : משנה ברורה‎‎ "Clarified Teaching") is a work of halakha (Jewish law) by Rabbi
Rabbi
Yisrael Meir Kagan ( Poland
Poland
, 1838–1933), also colloquially known by the name of another of his books, Chofetz Chaim "Desirer of Life". It was first published in 1904. His Mishnah Berurah
Mishnah Berurah
is a commentary on Orach Chayim , the first section of the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
which deals with laws of prayer, synagogue , Shabbat
Shabbat
and holidays , summarizing the opinions of the Acharonim (post-Medieval rabbinic authorities) on that work. The title Mishnah Berurah
Mishnah Berurah
is a reference to the portion in Deuteronomy where Israel is commanded to inscribe God's commandments in large clear writing on a mountainside
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Hasidic Judaism
HASIDISM, sometimes HASIDIC JUDAISM ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: חסידות‎, hasidut, Ashkenazi pronunciation : ; originally, "piety"), is a Jewish religious sect. It arose as a spiritual revival movement in contemporary Western Ukraine during the 18th century
18th century
and spread rapidly throughout Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
. Today, most affiliates reside in the United States
United States
, Israel
Israel
, and Britain . Israel
Israel
Ben Eliezer, the " Baal Shem Tov ", is regarded as its founding father, and his disciples developed and disseminated it. Present-day Hasidism is a sub-group within Ultra-Orthodox ("Haredi") Judaism
Judaism
and is noted for its religious conservatism and social seclusion
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Zohar
The ZOHAR ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: זֹהַר‬, lit. "Splendor" or "Radiance") is the foundational work in the literature of Jewish mystical thought known as Kabbalah
Kabbalah
. It is a group of books including commentary on the mystical aspects of the Torah
Torah
(the five books of Moses
Moses
) and scriptural interpretations as well as material on mysticism , mythical cosmogony , and mystical psychology . The Zohar
Zohar
contains discussions of the nature of God
God
, the origin and structure of the universe, the nature of souls, redemption, the relationship of Ego to Darkness and "true self" to "The Light of God", and the relationship between the "universal energy" and man. Its scriptural exegesis can be considered an esoteric form of the Rabbinic literature known as Midrash
Midrash
, which elaborates on the Torah
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Hebron
HEBRON (Arabic : الْخَلِيل‎‎ al-Khalīl ; Hebrew
Hebrew
: חֶבְרוֹן‎ Ḥevron ) is a Palestinian city located in the southern West Bank
West Bank
, 30 km (19 mi) south of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
. Nestled in the Judaean Mountains
Judaean Mountains
, it lies 930 meters (3,050 ft) above sea level . It is the largest city in the West Bank
West Bank
, and the second largest in the Palestinian territories
Palestinian territories
after Gaza , and home to 215,452 Palestinians (2016), and between 500 and 850 Jewish settlers concentrated in and around the old quarter. The city is divided into two sectors: H1, controlled by the Palestinian Authority and H2, roughly 20% of the city, administered by Israel
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Piyyut
A PIYYUT or PIYUT (plural PIYYUTIM or PIYUTIM, Hebrew פּיּוּטִים / פיוטים, פּיּוּטִ / פיוט pronounced ; from Greek ποιητής poiētḗs "poet") is a Jewish liturgical poem, usually designated to be sung, chanted, or recited during religious services . Piyyutim have been written since Temple times. Most piyyutim are in Hebrew or Aramaic , and most follow some poetic scheme, such as an acrostic following the order of the Hebrew alphabet or spelling out the name of the author. Many piyyutim are familiar to regular attendees of synagogue services. For example, the best-known piyyut may be Adon Olam ("Master of the World"), sometimes (but almost certainly wrongly) attributed to Solomon ibn Gabirol in 11th century Spain
Spain

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Safed
SAFED ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: צְפַת‎ Tsfat, Ashkenazi : Tzfas, Biblical : Ṣ'fath; Arabic : صفد‎‎, Ṣafad) is a city in the Northern District of Israel. Located at an elevation of 900 metres (2,953 ft), Safed
Safed
is the highest city in the Galilee
Galilee
and in Israel. Due to its high elevation, Safed
Safed
experiences warm summers and cold, often snowy, winters. Since the 16th century, Safed
Safed
has been considered one of Judaism
Judaism
's Four Holy Cities , along with Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, Hebron
Hebron
and Tiberias
Tiberias
; since that time, the city has remained a center of Kabbalah
Kabbalah
and Jewish mysticism
Jewish mysticism

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Shulchan Aruch
The SHULCHAN ARUCH (Hebrew : שֻׁלְחָן עָרוּך‎ , literally: "Set Table"), also known by various Jewish communities but not all as "the CODE OF JEWISH LAW," is the most widely consulted of the various legal codes in Judaism. It was authored in Safed (today in Israel
Israel
) by Yosef Karo in 1563 and published in Venice
Venice
two years later. Together with its commentaries, it is the most widely accepted compilation of Jewish law ever written. The halachic rulings in the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
generally follow Sephardic law and customs , whereas Ashkenazi Jews
Ashkenazi Jews
will generally follow the halachic rulings of Moses Isserles , whose glosses to the Shulchan Aruch note where the Sephardic and Ashkenazi customs differ
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Judaism
JUDAISM (originally from Hebrew יהודה‬, Yehudah, "Judah "; via Latin
Latin
and Greek ) is an ancient, monotheistic , Abrahamic religion with the Torah
Torah
as its foundational text. It encompasses the religion , philosophy and culture of the Jewish people . Judaism
Judaism
is considered by religious Jews
Jews
to be the expression of the covenant that God established with the Children of Israel
Israel
. Judaism
Judaism
includes a wide corpus of texts, practices, theological positions, and forms of organization. The Torah
Torah
is part of the larger text known as the Tanakh or the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
, and supplemental oral tradition represented by later texts such as the Midrash
Midrash
and the Talmud
Talmud

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Midrash
In Judaism
Judaism
, the MIDRASH (/ˈmɪdrɑːʃ/ ; Hebrew : מִדְרָשׁ‎; pl. מִדְרָשִׁים midrashim) is the genre of rabbinic literature which contains early interpretations and commentaries on the Written Torah and Oral Torah (spoken law and sermons), as well as non-legalistic rabbinic literature (aggadah ) and occasionally the Jewish religious laws (halakha ), which usually form a running commentary on specific passages in the Hebrew Scripture ( Tanakh ). The Midrash, capitalized, refers to a specific compilation of these writings, primarily from the first ten centuries CE . The purpose of midrash was to resolve problems in the interpretation of difficult passages of the text of the Hebrew Bible, using Rabbinic principles of hermeneutics and philology to align them with the religious and ethical values of religious teachers
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Musar Movement
The MUSAR MOVEMENT (also MUSSAR MOVEMENT) is a Jewish ethical , educational and cultural movement that developed in the 19th century in Lithuania, particularly among Orthodox Lithuanian Jews
Jews
. The Hebrew term Musar (מוּסַר‎), is from the book of Proverbs 1:2 meaning moral conduct, instruction or discipline. The term was used by the Musar movement
Musar movement
to refer to efforts to further ethical and spiritual discipline. The Musar Movement made significant contributions to Musar literature and Jewish Ethics
Jewish Ethics

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Tanakh
Outline of Bible-related topics Bible
Bible
book Bible
Bible
portal * v * t * e The TANAKH (/tɑːˈnɑːx/ ; Hebrew : תַּנַ"ךְ‎, pronounced or ; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible
Bible
, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament
Old Testament
. These texts are composed mainly in Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
, with some passages in Biblical Aramaic (in the books of Daniel , Ezra and a few others). The traditional Hebrew text is known as the Masoretic Text . The Tanakh consists of twenty-four books
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Kabbalah
KABBALAH (Hebrew : קַבָּלָה‬, literally "parallel/corresponding," or "received tradition" ) is an esoteric method, discipline, and school of thought that originated in Judaism. A traditional Kabbalist in Judaism is called a Mekubbal (מְקוּבָּל‬). Kabbalah's definition varies according to the tradition and aims of those following it, from its religious origin as an integral part of Judaism, to its later Christian , New Age , and Occultist/western esoteric syncretic adaptations. Kabbalah
Kabbalah
is a set of esoteric teachings meant to explain the relationship between an unchanging, eternal, and mysterious Ein Sof (infinity) and the mortal and finite universe (God's creation). While it is heavily used by some denominations, it is not a religious denomination in itself. It forms the foundations of mystical religious interpretation
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