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Samuel Pepys
Samuel Pepys
Samuel Pepys
FRS (/piːps/ PEEPS;[1] 23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an administrator of the navy of England and Member of Parliament who is most famous for the diary that he kept for a decade while still a relatively young man. Pepys had no maritime experience, but he rose to be the Chief Secretary to the Admiralty
Secretary to the Admiralty
under both King Charles II and King James II through patronage, hard work, and his talent for administration. His influence and reforms at the Admiralty
Admiralty
were important in the early professionalisation of the Royal Navy.[2] The detailed private diary that Pepys kept from 1660 until 1669 was first published in the 19th century and is one of the most important primary sources for the English Restoration
English Restoration
period
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Fellow Of The Royal Society
Fellowship of the Royal Society
Royal Society
(FRS, ForMemRS and HonFRS) is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society
Royal Society
judges to have made a "substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowled
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Primary Source
In the study of history as an academic discipline, a primary source (also called original source or evidence) is an artifact, a document, diary, manuscript, autobiography, a recording, or any other source of information that was created at the time under study. It serves as an original source of information about the topic. Similar definitions can be used in library science, and other areas of scholarship, although different fields have somewhat different definitions. In journalism, a primary source can be a person with direct knowledge of a situation, or a document written by such a person[1]. Primary sources are distinguished from secondary sources, which cite, comment on, or build upon primary sources
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Lord Chief Justice Of Ireland
The Court of King's Bench
Court of King's Bench
(or Court of Queen's Bench during the reign of a Queen) was one of the senior courts of common law in Ireland. It was a mirror of the Court of King's Bench
Court of King's Bench
in England. The Lord Chief Justice was the most senior judge in the court, and the second most senior Irish judge under English rule and later when Ireland became part of the United Kingdom
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Richard Edgcumbe, 1st Baron Edgcumbe
Richard Edgcumbe, 1st Baron
Baron
Edgcumbe, PC (23 April 1680 – 22 November 1758) was an English politician.Contents1 Life 2 Notes 3 References 4 External linksLife[edit] He was the son of Sir Richard Edgcumbe and Lady Anne Montagu, daughter of the Earl of Sandwich. Educated at Trinity College, Cambridge,[1] he was successively Member of Parliament for St Germans, Plympton Erle and Lostwithiel from 1701 to 1742. On two occasions he served as a lord of the treasury; and from 1724 to 1742 he was Paymaster-General
Paymaster-General
for Ireland, becoming Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster in December 1742
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Member Of Parliament (UK)
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament. In many countries with bicameral parliaments, this category includes specifically members of the lower house, as upper houses often have a different title
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Patronage
Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another. In the history of art, arts patronage refers to the support that kings, popes, and the wealthy have provided to artists such as musicians, painters, and sculptors. It can also refer to the right of bestowing offices or church benefices, the business given to a store by a regular customer, and the guardianship of saints. The word "patron" derives from the Latin: patronus ("patron"), one who gives benefits to his clients (see Patronage in ancient Rome). In some countries the term is used to describe political patronage, which is the use of state resources to reward individuals for their electoral support
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Professionalization
Professionalization is a social process by which any trade or occupation transforms itself into a true "profession of the highest integrity and competence."[1] The definition of what constitutes a profession is often contested. Professionalization tends to result in establishing acceptable qualifications, one or more professional associations to recommend best practice and to oversee the conduct of members of the profession, and some degree of demarcation of the qualified from unqualified amateurs (that is, professional certification). It is also likely to create "occupational closure", closing the profession to entry from outsiders, amateurs and the unqualified. Occupations not fully professionalized are sometimes called semiprofessions
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Royal Navy
The Royal Navy
Navy
(RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War
Hundred Years War
against the Kingdom of France. The modern Royal Navy
Navy
traces its origins to the early 16th century; the oldest of the UK's armed services, it is known as the Senior Service. From the middle decades of the 17th century, and through the 18th century, the Royal Navy
Navy
vied with the Dutch Navy
Navy
and later with the French Navy
Navy
for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century, it was the world's most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy
Navy
during the Second World War
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Witness
A witness is someone who has, who claims to have, or is thought, by someone with authority to compel testimony, to have knowledge relevant to an event or other matter of interest. In law a witness is someone who, either voluntarily or under compulsion, provides testimonial evidence, either oral or written, of what he or she knows or claims to know about the matter before some official authorized to take such testimony. A percipient witness or eyewitness is one who testifies what they perceived through his or her senses (e.g.: seeing, hearing, smelling, touching). That perception might be either with the unaided human sense or with the aid of an instrument, e.g.: microscope or stethoscope, or by other scientific means, e.g.: a chemical reagent which changes color in the presence of a particular substance. A hearsay witness is one who testifies what someone else said or wrote. In most court proceedings there are many limitations on when hearsay evidence is admissible
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Freedom Of The City
The Freedom of the City
The Freedom of the City
is an honour bestowed by a municipality upon a valued member of the community, or upon a visiting celebrity or dignitary. Arising from the medieval practice of granting respected citizens freedom from serfdom, the tradition still lives on in countries such as the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia, Canada, South Africa and New Zealand – although today the title of "freeman" confers no special privileges. The Freedom of the City
The Freedom of the City
can also be granted by municipal authorities to military units which have earned the city's trust; in this context, it is sometimes called the Freedom of Entry. This allows them the freedom to parade through the city, and is an affirmation of the bond between the regiment and the citizenry. The honor was sometimes accompanied by a "freedom box", a small gold box inscribed to record the occasion; these are not usual today
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Second Dutch War
The Second Anglo-Dutch War
Second Anglo-Dutch War
(4 March 1665 – 31 July 1667), or the Second Dutch War (Dutch: Tweede Engelse Oorlog "Second English War") was a conflict fought between England
England
and the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
for control over the seas and trade routes, where England
England
tried to end the Dutch domination of world trade during a period of intense European commercial rivalry. After initial English successes, the war ended in a Dutch victory
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Quartering (heraldry)
Quartering in heraldry is a method of joining several different coats of arms together in one shield by dividing the shield into equal parts and placing different coats of arms in each division.Simple quartering, crudely drawn. De Salis quartered with Fane.The flag of Maryland has a quartering of the coats of arms of the Calvert and Crossland familiesTypically, a quartering consists of a division into four equal parts, two above and two below (party per cross). An example is the Sovereign Arms of the United Kingdom, as used outside Scotland, which consists of four quarterings, displaying the Arms of England, Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland, with the coat for England
England
repeated at the end
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Lions In Heraldry
The lion is a common charge in heraldry. It traditionally symbolises courage, nobility, royalty, strength, stateliness and valour, because historically it has been regarded as the "king of beasts".[1] Lion refers also to a Judeo-Christian symbolism. The Lion
Lion
of Judah stands in the coat of arms of Jerusalem. Similar looking lion can be found e.g. in the coat of arms of the Swedish royal House of Bjelbo, from there in turn derived into the coat of arms of Finland, formerly belonging to Sweden, and many others examples for similar historical reasons.Contents1 Examples 2 History 3 Attitudes 4 Lions vs
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Fleet Street
A street is a public thoroughfare (usually paved) in a built environment. It is a public parcel of land adjoining buildings in an urban context, on which people may freely assemble, interact, and move about. A street can be as simple as a level patch of dirt, but is more often paved with a hard, durable surface such as concrete, cobblestone or brick. Portions may also be smoothed with asphalt, embedded with rails, or otherwise prepared to accommodate non-pedestrian traffic. Originally the word "street" simply meant a paved road (Latin: "via strata"). The word "street" is still sometimes used colloquially as a synonym for "road", for example in connection with the ancient Watling Street, but city residents and urban planners draw a crucial modern distinction: a road's main function is transportation, while streets facilitate public interaction.[1] Examples of streets include pedestrian streets, alleys, and city-centre streets too crowded for road vehicles to pass
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Recorder (judge)
A Recorder is a judicial officer in England and Wales
England and Wales
and some other common law jurisdictions.Contents1 England and Wales1.1 Historic office 1.2 Titular and honorific recorders 1.3 Recorders as part-time appointments2 In other jurisdictions2.1 Ireland and Northern Ireland 2.2 Hong Kong 2.3 United States and Canada3 Biblical usage 4 See also 5 References5.1 Citations 5.2 BibliographyEngland and Wales[edit] In the courts of England and Wales
England and Wales
the term Recorder has two distinct meanings. The senior circuit judge of a borough or city is often awarded the title of "Honorary Recorder". However, "Recorder" is also used to denote a barrister or solicitor who sits as a part-time circuit judge. Historic office[edit] In England and Wales, originally a recorder was a certain magistrate or judge having criminal and civil jurisdiction within the corporation of a city or borough
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