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Sam'al
Sam'al
Sam'al
(Hittite: Yadiya) was founded as a Hittite[citation needed] colony from 1725-1200 BC. It became an Aramaean
Aramaean
Principality,[citation needed] following the collapse of the Hittite Empire
Hittite Empire
in 1200 BC. In 940 BC it became a kingdom, and in 680 BC the state came under control of the Assyrian Empire. It was located at Zincirli Höyük in the Anti-Taurus Mountains of modern Turkey's Gaziantep Province.Contents1 History1.1 Kingdom of Sam'al2 Archaeology2.1 Inscriptions3 The stele of Kuttamuwa 4 Notes 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit]Historical map of the Neo-Hittite states, c
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Gaziantep Province
Gaziantep
Gaziantep
Province (Turkish: Gaziantep
Gaziantep
ili) is a province in south-central Turkey. Its capital is the city of Gaziantep, which had a population of 1.931.836 in 2015. Its neighbours are Adıyaman to the north, Şanlıurfa to the east, Syria
Syria
and Kilis to the south, Hatay to the southwest, Osmaniye to the west and Kahramanmaraş to the northwest. An important trading center since ancient times, the province is also one of Turkey's major manufacturing zones, and its agriculture is dominated by the growing of pistachio nuts. In ancient times, first under the power of Yamhad, then the Hittites and later the Assyrians controlled the region. It saw much fighting during the Crusades, and Saladin
Saladin
won a key battle there in 1183
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Rudolf Virchow
Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow (English: /ˈvɪərkoʊ, ˈfɪərxoʊ/;[1] German: [ˈvɪɐ̯çoː];[2][3] 13 October 1821 – 5 September 1902) was a German physician, anthropologist, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist, writer, editor, and politician, known for his advancement of public health. He is known as "the father of modern pathology" because his work helped to discredit humourism, bringing more science to medicine. He is also known as the founder of social medicine and veterinary pathology, and to his colleagues, the "Pope of medicine".[4][5][6] Born and raised in Schievelbein (Świdwin) as an only child of a working-class family, he proved to be a brilliant student. Dissuaded by his weak voice, he abandoned his initial interest in theology and turned to medicine. With the help of a special military scholarship, he earned his medical degree from Friedrich-Wilhelms Institute (Humboldt University of Berlin) under the tutelage of Johannes Peter Müller
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Turkey
Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye [ˈtyɾcije]), officially the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti [ˈtyɾcije d͡ʒumˈhuɾijeti] ( listen)), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia
Anatolia
in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.[7] Turkey
Turkey
is bordered by eight countries with Greece
Greece
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
to the northwest; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Iran
Iran
to the east; and Iraq
Iraq
and Syria
Syria
to the south
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Cilicia
In antiquity, Cilicia
Cilicia
(/sɪˈlɪʃiə/)[2][note 1] was the south coastal region of Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
during the late Byzantine Empire
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Battle Of Qarqar
The Battle of Qarqar (or Ḳarḳar) was fought in 853 BC, when the army of Assyria
Assyria
led by king Shalmaneser III encountered an allied army of eleven kings at Qarqar, led by Hadadezer (also called Adad-idr and possibly to be identified with Benhadad II) of Damascus and King Ahab of Israel. This battle, fought during the 854 BC–846 BC Assyrian Conquest of Syria, is notable for having a larger number of combatants than any previous battle, and for being the first instance in which some peoples enter recorded history (such as the Arabs). The battle is recorded on the Kurkh Monolith
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Denyen
The Denyen is purported to be one of the groups constituting the Sea Peoples.Contents1 Origin 2 Hittite Empire 3 Egyptian raids and settlement 4 Aegean Sea 5 Tribe of Dan 6 ReferencesOrigin[edit] They are mentioned in the Amarna letters
Amarna letters
from the 14th century BC as possibly being related to the "Land of the Danuna" near Ugarit.[1] The Egyptians
Egyptians
described them as Sea Peoples.[2] Hittite Empire[edit] The Denyen have been identified with the people of Adana, in Cilicia who existed in late Hittite Empire times. They are also believed to have settled in Cyprus. A Hittite report[3] speaks of a Muksus, who also appears in an eighth-century bilingual inscription from Karatepe stele in Cilicia. The kings of Adana
Adana
are traced from the "house of Mopsos," given in hieroglyphic Luwian
Luwian
as Moxos and in Phoenician as Mopsos, in the form mps
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Shalmaneser III
Shalmaneser may refer to: Shalmaneser I, King of Assyria (1274–1245 BC) Shalmaneser II, King of Assyria (1031–1019 BC) Shalmaneser III, King of Assyria (859–824 BC) Shalmaneser IV, King of Assyria (783–773 BC) Shalmaneser V, King of Assyria (727–722 BC) and Biblical conqueror of Israel (Northern Kingdom)See also[edit]Salmanazar, a wine bottle size measuring 9 litres George Psalmanazar
George Psalmanazar
(c. 1679–1763), a Frenchman who posed as a Formosan immigrantThis disambiguation page lists articles about people with the same name
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Kilamuwa Stela
The Kilamuwa Stele is a 9th-century BC stele of King Kilamuwa, from the Kingdom of Ya'diya. He claims to have succeeded where his ancestors had failed, in providing for his kingdom.[1] The Kilamuwa Stele was discovered during the 1888-1902 German Oriental Society expeditions led by Felix von Luschan and Robert Koldewey.[2][3][4][5][6] It is currently located in the Vorderasiatisches Museum Berlin.Contents1 Description of the stele 2 Translation 3 References 4 External linksDescription of the stele[edit] The stele is a 16-line text in the Phoenician language and written in an Old Aramaic form of the Phoenician alphabet.[7] King Kilamuwa is shown standing on the upper left and addressing four Assyrian gods with his right arm and finger, where he imitates his Assyrian lords in a gesture called "Ubanu tarrashu" which designates "you are my god"
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Sargon II
Sargon II
Sargon II
(Assyrian Šarru-ukīn (LUGAL-GI.NA 𒈗𒄀𒈾); Aramaic סרגן;[1] reigned 722–705 BC) was an Assyrian king
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Robert Koldewey
Robert Johann Koldewey (10 September 1855 – 4 February 1925) was a German archaeologist, famous for his in-depth excavation of the ancient city of Babylon
Babylon
in modern-day Iraq. He was born in Blankenburg am Harz in Germany, the duchy of Brunswick, and died in Berlin
Berlin
at the age of 70. His digs at Babylon
Babylon
revealed the foundations of the ziggurat Marduk, and the Ishtar Gate; he also developed several modern archaeological techniques including a method to identify and excavate mud brick architecture. This technique was particularly useful in his excavation of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon
Babylon
(1899–1917) which were built ca. 580 BC using mainly unfired mudbricks. A practicing archaeologist for most of his life, he participated in and led many excavations in Asia Minor, Greece, and Italy
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Citadel
A citadel is the core fortified area of a town or city. It may be a fortress, castle, or fortified center. The term is a diminutive of "city" and thus means "little city", so called because it is a smaller part of the city of which it is the defensive core. Ancient Sparta
Ancient Sparta
had a citadel as did many other Greek cities and towns. In a fortification with bastions, the citadel is the strongest part of the system, sometimes well inside the outer walls and bastions, but often forming part of the outer wall for the sake of economy. It is positioned to be the last line of defense, should the enemy breach the other components of the fortification system. A citadel is also a term of the third part of a medieval castle, with higher walls than the rest
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Nur Mountains
The Nur Mountains
Nur Mountains
(Turkish: Nur Dağları, "Mountains of Holy Light"), formerly known as Alma-Dağ[1] or the ancient Amanus (Ancient Greek: Ἁμανός), is a mountain range in the Hatay Province
Hatay Province
of south-central Turkey, which runs roughly parallel to the Gulf of İskenderun. The range reaches a maximum elevation of 2,240 m (7,350 ft) and divides the coastal region of Cilicia
Cilicia
from inland Syria. The highest peak is Bozdağ Dağı. A major pass through the mountains known as the Syrian Gates or Belen Pass
Belen Pass
is located near the town of Belen
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Orthostat
This article describes several characteristic architectural elements typical of European megalithic (Stone Age) structures. Contents1 Forecourt 2 Kerb or peristalith 3 Orthostat 4 Port-hole slab 5 Portal
Portal
stones 6 Trilithon 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksForecourt[edit] In archaeology, a forecourt is the name given to the area in front of certain types of chamber tomb. Forecourts were probably the venue for ritual practices connected with the burial and commemoration of the dead in the past societies that built these types of tombs. In European megalithic architecture, forecourts are curved in plan with the entrance to the tomb at the apex of the open semicircle enclosure that the forecourt creates
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Phoenician Languages
Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal (Mediterranean) region then called "Canaan" in Phoenician, Hebrew, Old Arabic, and Aramaic, "Phoenicia" in Greek and Latin, and "Pūt" in the Egyptian language. It is a part of the Canaanite subgroup of the Northwest Semitic languages. Other members of the family are Hebrew, Ammonite, Moabite and Edomite
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Pergamon Museum
Coordinates: 52°31′16″N 13°23′46″E / 52.521°N 13.396°E / 52.521; 13.396This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Pergamon
Pergamon
MuseumLocation within GermanyEstablished 1910Location Pergamonmuseum, 10117 Berlin, GermanyCoordinates 52°31′15″N 13°23′47″E / 52.5209°N 13.3964°E / 52.5209; 13.3964Type Art museum, Historic siteVisitors1.1 million (2007)Ranked 1st nationally Ranked 39th globallyPublic transit access Friedrichstraße
Friedrichstraße
Website WebsiteThe Pergamon
Pergamon
Museum (German: Pergamonmuseum) is situated on the Museum Island in Berlin
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