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Saint Sophia Cathedral In Polotsk
THE CATHEDRAL OF HOLY WISDOM in Polotsk
Polotsk
(Belarusian : Полацкі Сафійскі сабор; Russian : Собор Святой Софии в Полоцке) was built by Prince Vseslav Briacheslavich (r.1044–1101) between 1044 (it is first mentioned in the Voskresenskaia Chronicle under the year 1056) and 1066. It stands at the confluence of the Polota and Western Dvina Rivers on the eastern side of the city and is probably the oldest church in Belarus. The Cathedral of Holy Wisdom in Polotsk
Polotsk
as depicted on a 2005 20 ruble silver commemorative coin. Vseslav of Polotsk, the cathedral's patron, is shown on the reverse. The cathedral is, like the Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev and Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod , named after the Holy Wisdom of God. After building his own cathedral, Vseslav, who was an izgoi prince, tried to seize the Kievan throne
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Union Of Brest
The UNION OF BREST, or UNION OF BRZEść, was the 1595-96 decision of the Ruthenian Orthodox Church to break relations with the Eastern Orthodox Church and to enter into communion with, and place itself under the authority of the Pope of Rome . CONTENTS * 1 The union * 2 See also * 3 Notes * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links THE UNIONPrior attempts to come to union with Catholic church were made on several occasions, including an instance in which the Metropolitan of Kiev Isidore signed the Union of Florence and technically united the Ruthenian Orthodox Church
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Livonian War
Cession of: * Estonia
Estonia
to Sweden * Livonia, Courland
Courland
and Semigallia to Poland–Lithuania * Ösel to Denmark–Norway BELLIGERENTS
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Stephen Báthory Of Poland
STEPHEN BáTHORY (Hungarian : Báthory István; Polish : Stefan Batory; Belarusian : Стэфан Баторы; Lithuanian : Steponas Batoras; Romanian : Ștefan Báthory; 27 September 1533 – 12 December 1586) was Voivode of Transylvania
Transylvania
(1571–76), Prince of Transylvania
Transylvania
(1576–86), from 1576 Queen Anna Jagiellon
Anna Jagiellon
's husband and jure uxoris King of Poland
King of Poland
and Grand Duke of Lithuania (1576-1586). The son of Stephen VIII Báthory and a member of the Hungarian Báthory noble family , Báthory was a ruler of Transylvania
Transylvania
in the 1570s, defeating another challenger for that title, Gáspár Bekes . In 1576 Báthory became the third elected king of Poland
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Johann Christoph Glaubitz
JOHANN CHRISTOPH GLAUBITZ (c. 1700 – 30 March 1767) was an architect of German descent who is generally considered to be the most prominent Baroque architect in the lands of the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania . Glaubitz was born in Schweidnitz (Świdnica) , Duchies of Silesia , and spent the first 37 years of his life there. After a devastating fires occurred in 1737 in Vilnius , he was called to rebuild Lutheran St. Johns' Church, which in 1555 had been funded by German merchants. Glaubitz, who was among the leaders of the Lutheran community of Vilnius, is credited for developing a distinct Lithuanian school of Baroque architecture, known as Vilnian Baroque, which is best reflected in the cityscape of the Old Town of Vilnius . This has contributed to the widespread naming of Old Vilnius as the "City of Baroque". There are at least four churches in Vilnius reconstructed by Glaubitz, namely the Church of St
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Eastern Rite Catholic Church
The EASTERN CATHOLIC CHURCHES or ORIENTAL CATHOLIC CHURCHES, also called the EASTERN-RITE CATHOLIC CHURCHES, GREEK CATHOLIC CHURCHES, and in some historical cases UNIATE CHURCHES, are twenty-three Eastern Christian particular churches sui iuris in full communion with the Pope in Rome , as part of the worldwide Catholic Church . Headed by patriarchs , metropolitans , and major archbishops , the Eastern Catholic Churches are governed in accordance with the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches , although each church also has its own canons and laws on top of this, and the preservation of their own traditions is explicitly encouraged. The total membership of the various churches accounts for about 16 million, according to the Annuario Pontificio (the annual directory of the Catholic Church), thus making up about 1.5 percent of the Catholic Church, with the rest of its more than 1.2 billion members belonging to the (Western) Latin Church
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Belarusian Greek Catholic Church
The BELARUSIAN GREEK CATHOLIC CHURCH (Belarusian : Беларуская грэка-каталіцкая царква, BHKC), sometimes called, in reference to its Byzantine Rite
Byzantine Rite
, the BELARUSIAN BYZANTINE CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the heir within Belarus
Belarus
of the Union of Brest . It is listed in the Annuario Pontificio
Annuario Pontificio
as a sui iuris Church, an Eastern rite particular Church in full union with the Catholic
Catholic
Church . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Present situation * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Sources HISTORYThe Christians who, through the Union of Brest (1595–96), entered full communion with the See of Rome while keeping their Byzantine liturgy in the Church Slavonic language, were at first mainly Belarusian ( Litvin )
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Organ (music)
In music , the ORGAN (from Greek ὄργανον organon, "organ, instrument, tool") is a keyboard instrument of one or more pipe divisions , each played with its own keyboard, played either with the hands on a keyboard or with the feet using pedals. The organ is a relatively old musical instrument , dating from the time of Ctesibius of Alexandria (285–222 BC), who invented the water organ . It was played throughout the Ancient Greek and Ancient Roman world, particularly during races and games. During the early medieval period it spread from the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
, where it continued to be used in secular (non-religious) and imperial court music, to Western Europe, where it gradually assumed a prominent place in the liturgy of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
. Subsequently it re-emerged as a secular and recital instrument in the Classical music
Classical music
tradition
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Russian Orthodox Church
Coordinates : 55°42′40″N 37°37′45″E / 55.71111°N 37.62917°E / 55.71111; 37.62917 Russian Orthodox Church ( Moscow
Moscow
Patriarchate
Patriarchate
) The
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Polotsk
POLOTSK or POLATSK (Belarusian : По́лацк, Połack , Russian : По́лоцк, Polotsk, Polish : Połock, Lithuanian : Polockas) is a historical city in Belarus
Belarus
, situated on the Dvina River. It is the center of the Polatsk Raion
Raion
in Vitebsk Voblast
Vitebsk Voblast
. Its population is more than 80,000 people. It is served by Polotsk Airport and during the Cold War
Cold War
was home to Borovitsy air base. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Cultural heritage * 3 Sports * 4 Notable people * 5 Gallery * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORY Main article: Principality of Polotsk Polotsk
Polotsk
in the 16th century. The Old East Slavic name, Polotesk, derives from the Polota River, that flows into the Western Dvina nearby. The Vikings rendered that name as Palteskja
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Vilnius
VILNIUS (Lithuanian pronunciation: ( listen ), see also other names ) is the capital of Lithuania
Lithuania
and its largest city, with a population of 542,664 as of 2015 . Vilnius
Vilnius
is located in the southeast part of Lithuania
Lithuania
and is the second largest city in the Baltic states
Baltic states
. Vilnius
Vilnius
is the seat of the main government institutions of Lithuania as well as of the Vilnius District Municipality
Vilnius District Municipality
. Vilnius
Vilnius
is classified as a Gamma global city according to GaWC
GaWC
studies, and is known for the architecture in its Old Town , declared a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site in 1994
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Izgoi
IZGOI is a term found in medieval Kievan Rus\' . In primary documents, it is used to indicate orphans protected by the church. In historiographic writing on the period, it meant a prince in Kievan Rus' who was excluded from succession to the Kievan throne because his father had not held the throne before him. In Kievan Rus', as well as Appanage and early Muscovite Russia, collateral succession , rather than linear succession was practiced, with the throne being passed from eldest brother to youngest brother and then to cousins down to the fourth in line of succession (not to be confused with "fourth cousins") in a generation before it was passed on to the eldest member of the senior line so long as his father had held the Kievan throne. The princes were placed in a hierarchy or "ladder" or "staircase" of principalities which Sergei Soloviev called the " Rota System " (rota being the Old Church Slavic term for a ladder or staircase), with Kiev as the pinnacle
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Aleksandr Menshikov
Great Northern War * Battle of Praga * Battle of Kalisz * Battle of Holowczyn * Battle of Lesnaya * Battle of Poltava * Surrender at Perevolochna Prince ALEKSANDER DANILOVICH MENSHIKOV (Russian: Алекса́ндр Дани́лович Ме́ншиков; 16 November 1673 – 23 November 1729) was a Russian statesman, whose official titles included Generalissimus , Prince of the Russian Empire and Duke of Izhora (Duke of Ingria ), Prince of the Holy Roman Empire , Duke of Cosel . A highly appreciated associate and friend of Tsar Peter the Great , he was the de facto ruler of Russia for two years. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Corruption * 3 Supremacy and disgrace * 4 Palaces of Menshikov * 5 Children * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links EARLY LIFE Portrait of Menshikov by Michiel van Musscher (1698) Menshikov was born on 16 November 1673 in Moscow
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Russian Language
RUSSIAN (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia
Russia
, Belarus
Belarus
, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and many minor or unrecognised territories throughout Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularity in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
, the Baltics , the Caucasus
Caucasus
, and Central Asia
Central Asia
). It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Latvia
Latvia
, Moldova
Moldova
, Ukraine
Ukraine
and to a lesser extent, the other post-Soviet states
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