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Saint Nicholas
SAINT NICHOLAS (Greek : Ἅγιος Νικόλαος, Hágios Nikólaos, Latin : Sanctus Nicolaus); (15 March 270 – 6 December 343), also called NIKOLAOS OF MYRA, was a historic 4th-century Christian saint and Greek Bishop of Myra , in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
(modern-day Demre , Turkey). Because of the many miracles attributed to his intercession , he is also known as NIKOLAOS THE WONDERWORKER (Νικόλαος ὁ Θαυματουργός, Nikólaos ho Thaumaturgós). His reputation evolved among the faithful, as was common for early Christian saints , and his legendary habit of secret gift-giving gave rise to the traditional model of Santa Claus
Santa Claus
through Sinterklaas . The historical Saint
Saint
Nicholas is commemorated and revered among far more Christian sects than just Orthodox Christians
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Eastern Christianity
EASTERN CHRISTIANITY consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
, the Oriental Orthodox churches , the Assyrian Church of the East , and the Eastern Catholic churches
Eastern Catholic churches
(that are in communion with Rome but still maintain an Eastern liturgy ). The term is used in contrast with Western Christianity
Western Christianity
(namely the Latin Church
Latin Church
and Protestantism
Protestantism
)
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Omophorion
In the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic liturgical tradition, the OMOPHORION (Greek : ὠμοφόριον, meaning " borne on the shoulders"; Slavonic : омофоръ, omofor) is the distinguishing vestment of a bishop and the symbol of his spiritual and ecclesiastical authority. Originally of wool, it is a band of brocade decorated with four crosses and an eight-pointed star and is worn about the neck and shoulders. By symbolizing the lost sheep that is found and carried on the Good Shepherd 's shoulders, it signifies the bishop's pastoral role as the icon of Christ
Christ
. Clergy and ecclesiastical institutions subject to a bishop's authority are often said to be "under his omophorion". The equivalent vestment in Western Christian usage is the archiepiscopal pallium , the use of which is subject to different rubrics and restrictions, while all Orthodox bishops wear the omophorion
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Gospel Book
The GOSPEL BOOK, EVANGELION, or BOOK OF THE GOSPELS (Greek : Εὐαγγέλιον, Evangélion) is a codex or bound volume containing one or more of the four Gospels of the Christian
Christian
New Testament — normally all four. The term is also used of the liturgical book , also called the Evangeliary
Evangeliary
, from which are read the portions of the Gospels used in the Mass and other services, arranged according to the order of the liturgical calendar . Liturgical use in churches of a distinct Gospel book remains normal, often compulsory, in Eastern Christianity
Eastern Christianity
, and very common in Roman Catholicism and some parts of Anglicanism
Anglicanism
. Protestant
Protestant
churches normally just use a complete Bible
Bible

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Vestments
VESTMENTS are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religion, especially among the Eastern Orthodox , Catholics ( Latin Church
Latin Church
and others), Anglicans
Anglicans
, and Lutherans . Many other groups also make use of liturgical garments; this was a point of controversy in the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
and sometimes since, in particular during the Ritualist controversies in England in the 19th century. For other garments worn by clergy, see also clerical clothing
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Lorraine (region)
LORRAINE (French pronunciation: ​ ; Lorrain : Louréne; Lorraine Franconian : Lottringe; German: Lothringen (help ·info ); Luxembourgish : Loutrengen) is a cultural and historical region in north-eastern France
France
, now located in the administrative region of Grand Est . Lorraine's name stems from the medieval kingdom of Lotharingia
Lotharingia
, which in turn was named for either Emperor Lothair I
Lothair I
or King Lothair II . It later was ruled as the Duchy of Lorraine
Duchy of Lorraine
before the Kingdom of France
France
annexed it in 1766. From 1982 until January 2016, Lorraine
Lorraine
was an administrative region of France. In 2016, under a reorganization, it became part of the new region Grand Est
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Saint
A SAINT (also historically known as a HALLOW) is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God
God
. Depending on the context and denomination , the term also retains its original Christian
Christian
meaning, as any believer who is "in Christ
Christ
" and in whom Christ
Christ
dwells, whether in Heaven
Heaven
or on Earth
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Latin Language
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek : ελληνικά , elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα ( listen ), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary , were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Theotokos
THEOTOKOS (Greek Θεοτόκος Greek pronunciation: ) is a title of Mary, mother of Jesus
Mary, mother of Jesus
, used especially in Eastern Christianity
Eastern Christianity
. The usual Latin translations, Dei Genetrix or Deipara (approximately "parent (fem.) of God
God
"), are translated as "Mother of God" or "God-bearer". The Council of Ephesus decreed in 431 that Mary is the Theotokos because her son Jesus
Jesus
is both God
God
and man : one divine person with two natures (divine and human) intimately and hypostatically united
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Russia
Coordinates : 60°N 90°E / 60°N 90°E / 60; 90 Russian Federation Росси́йская Федера́ция (Russian ) Rossiyskaya Federatsiya Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: "Gosudarstvenny gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii " (transliteration ) "State Anthem of the Russian Federation" Location of Russia
Russia
(green) Russian-administered Crimea
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Aberdeen
ABERDEEN (/æbərˈdiːn/ ( listen ); Scots : Aiberdeen, listen (help ·info ); Scottish Gaelic : Obar Dheathain ; Latin : Aberdonia) is Scotland
Scotland
's third most populous city , one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
's 37th most populous built-up area , with an official population estimate of 196,670 for the city of Aberdeen
Aberdeen
and 229,800 for the local authority area. Nicknames include the Granite City, the Grey City and the Silver City with the Golden Sands. During the mid-18th to mid-20th centuries, Aberdeen's buildings incorporated locally quarried grey granite, which can sparkle like silver because of its high mica content. Since the discovery of North Sea oil in the 1970s, other nicknames have been the Oil Capital of the World or the Energy Capital of the World
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Archery
ARCHERY is the sport, practice or skill of using a bow to propel arrows . The word comes from the Latin arcus. Historically, archery has been used for hunting and combat. In modern times, it is mainly a competitive sport and recreational activity. A person who participates in archery is typically called an ARCHER or a bowman, and a person who is fond of or an expert at archery is sometimes called a TOXOPHILITE
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Pharmacist
PHARMACISTS, also known as CHEMISTS (Commonwealth English ) or DRUGGISTS (North American and, archaically, Commonwealth English), are healthcare professionals who practice in pharmacy , the field of health sciences focusing on safe and effective medication use. A pharmacist is a member of the health care team directly involved with patient care. Pharmacists undergo university-level education to understand the biochemical mechanisms and actions of drugs, drug uses, therapeutic roles, side effects, potential drug interactions , and monitoring parameters. This is mated to anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology. Pharmacists interpret and communicate this specialized knowledge to patients, physicians , and other health care providers. Among other licensing requirements, different countries require pharmacists to hold either a Bachelor of Pharmacy , Master of Pharmacy , or Doctor of Pharmacy degree
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Patron Saint
A PATRON SAINT, PATRONESS SAINT, PATRON HALLOW or HEAVENLY PROTECTOR is a saint who in Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholicism
, Anglicanism
Anglicanism
, Eastern Orthodoxy , or particular branches of Islam
Islam
, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person. Catholics believe that patron saints, having already transcended to the metaphysical, are able to intercede effectively for the needs of their special charges. Historically, a similar practice has also occurred in many Islamic lands. Although Islam
Islam
has no codified doctrine of patronage on the part of saints , it has nevertheless been an important part of both Sunni and Shia Islamic tradition that particularly important classical saints have served as the heavenly advocates for specific Muslim empires , nations , cities , towns , and villages
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Cooper (profession)
A COOPER is someone in the trade of making utensils and barrels and other accessories, usually out of wood that was steamed, but sometimes using other materials. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 21st century * 3 "Cooper" as a name * 4 References * 4.1 Bibliography * 5 Further reading * 6 External links HISTORY Cooper at Zuiderzeemuseum , Enkhuizen , the Netherlands Traditionally, a cooper is someone who makes wooden, staved vessels, bound together with hoops and possessing flat ends or heads. Examples of a cooper's work include casks , barrels , buckets , tubs, butter churns, hogsheads , firkins , tierces , rundlets , puncheons , pipes, tuns , butts , pins and breakers. Traditionally, a hooper was the man who fitted the metal hoops around the barrels or buckets that the cooper had made, essentially an assistant to the cooper. The English name Hooper is derived from that profession
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