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Sahrawi Nationality Law
Sahrawi nationality law
Sahrawi nationality law
is the law of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) governing nationality and citizenship. SADR is a partially recognized state which claims sovereignty over the entire territory of Western Sahara, but only administers part of that territory.Contents1 Legal framework 2 Responsibilities of Sahrawi citizens 3 Status of Moroccan settlers 4 See also 5 ReferencesLegal framework[edit] The legal basis for Sahrawi nationality law
Sahrawi nationality law
is established in Article 104 of the Sahrawi constitution which provides that the Sahrawi National Council can make:[1]fundamental legislation on nationality, the right to citizenship and civil status; and general laws relating to the status of foreigners.Generally, international practice is that nationality is established at birth by a child's place of birth (jus soli) or bloodline (jus sanguinis)
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Western Sahara War
Mohamed Abdelaziz (Chairman of the Revolutionary Council / Commander-in-Chief) El-Ouali Mustapha Sayed † (Chairman of the Revolutionary Council) Brahim Gali Lahbib Ayoub Mohamed Lamine Uld Bujari Mohamed Ali El Admi Houari Boumediene Lounes AribStrengthMorocco: 30,000 (1976)[2] – 60,000 (1980)[3] – 150,000 (1988)[4] – 120,000 (1991)[5] Mauritania: 3,000[6]-5,000[2] (1976) – 12,000 (1977)[6] – 18,000 (1978)[7] 5,000 (1976)[8] – 15,000 (1980)[3] – 8,000 (1988)[4]Casualties and lossesMorocco: unknown 2,155[9] – 2,300 captured[10] Mauritania: 2,000 soldiers killed[11] unknownCivilian Casualties: More than 3,000 Sahrawis killed (Eckhardt,1985)[12] 3 West German pilots killed[13] 853+ (Project Disappeared)[14] - 1,500 (International Federation of Human Rights)[15] Sahrawis missing 40,000 (1976)[16] – 80,000 (1977)[17] Sahrawis displacedv t eSahrawi independence movement
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Demain
Tomorrow[2] (French: Demain) is a 2015 French documentary film directed by Cyril Dion
Cyril Dion
and Mélanie Laurent. Faced with a future that scientists say is a great cause for concern,[3] the film has the distinction of not giving in to catastrophism
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Oujda
Oujda
Oujda
(Arabic: وجدة‎; Berber languages: ⵡⴻⵊⴷⴰ, translit. wəʒda) is the capital city of the Oriental region of eastern Morocco. It is located about 15 kilometres (9 miles) west of the Algerian border and about 55 km (34 miles) south of the Mediterranean Sea.Contents1 History 2 Geography 3 Climate 4 Architecture 5 Music 6 Subdivisions 7 Education 8 Industry 9 Transport 10 Economy 11 Sport11.1 Football12 Town twinning 13 See also 14 References 15 External linksHistory[edit]Ancien miradorThere is some evidence of a settlement during the Roman occupation, which seems to have been under the control of Berbers
Berbers
rather than Romans.[2] The city was founded in 994 by Ziri ibn Atiyya, Berber chief of the Zenata
Zenata
Maghrawa tribe
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Political Prisoner
A political prisoner is someone imprisoned because they have opposed or criticized the government responsible for their imprisonment. The term is used by persons or groups challenging the legitimacy of the detention of a prisoner. Supporters of the term define a political prisoner as someone who is imprisoned for his or her participation in political activity
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Spanish Sahara
Spanish Sahara
Sahara
(Spanish: Sahara
Sahara
Español; Arabic: الصحراء الإسبانية‎ As-Sahrā'a Al-Isbānīyah) officially the Overseas Province of the Spanish Sahara, was the name used for the modern territory of Western Sahara
Western Sahara
when it was occupied and ruled as a territory by Spain
Spain
between 1884 and 1975. It had been one of the most recent acquisitions of the Spanish Empire, as well as one of its last remaining holdings, which had once extended from the Americas to the Philippines and East Asia. Spain
Spain
gave up its Saharan possession following Moroccan demands and international pressure, mainly from United Nations
United Nations
resolutions regarding decolonisation. There was internal pressure from the native Sahrawi population and the claims of Morocco
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MINURSO
The United Nations
United Nations
Mission for the Referendum
Referendum
in Western Sahara (Arabic: بعثة الأمم المتحدة لتنظيم استف
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2011 Western Saharan Protests
A protest (also called a remonstrance, remonstration or demonstration) is an expression of bearing witness on behalf of an express cause by words or actions with regard to particular events, policies or situations. Protests can take many different forms, from individual statements to mass demonstrations
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Gdeim Izik Protest Camp
Fatalities18 Morocco
Morocco
police officers dead 102 Polisario
Polisario
terrorists executed [1]Injuries173 Morocco
Morocco
officials 1200 Polisario
Polisario
riotersv t eSahrawi independence movement Zemla Intifada
Zemla Intifada
(1970) POLISARIO insurgency (1973–1975) Western Sahara
Western Sahara
War (1975–1991) First Intifada (1999) Independence Intifada (2005) Gdeim Izik protest (2010) Arab Spring
Arab Spring
protests (2011)The Gdeim Izik protest camp
Gdeim Izik protest camp
was a protest camp in Western Sahara, established on 9 October 2010 and lasting into November that year, with related incidents occurring in the aftermath of its dismantlement on 8 November. While protests were initially peaceful, they were later marked by clashes between Sahrawi civilians and Moroccan security forces
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Independence Intifada (Western Sahara)
Independence
Independence
is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory. The opposite of independence is the status of a dependent territory.Contents1 Definition of independence1.1 Distinction between independence and autonomy2 Declarations of independence 3 Historical overview 4 Continents 5 Notes 6 See also 7 ReferencesDefinition of independence[edit] Whether the attainment of independence is different from revolution has long been contested, and has often been debated over the question of violence as legitimate means to achieving sovereignty.[1] While some revolutions seek and achieve national independence, others aim only to redistribute power — with or without an element of emancipation, such as in democratization — within a state, which as such may remain unaltered
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First Sahrawi Intifada
Demonstrations Civil resistance RiotingParties to the civil conflict Sahrawi activistsSahrawi students National Association of Unemployed University Graduates Sahrawi miners Moroccan governmentAuxiliary Forces Royal Moroccan Gendarmerie Groupes urbains de sécuritéCasualtiesHundreds arrested, some woundedv t eSahrawi independence movement Zemla Intifada
Zemla Intifada
(1970) POLISARIO insurgency (1973–1975) Western Sahara
Western Sahara
War (1975–1991) First Intifada (1999) Independence Intifada (2005) Gdeim Izik protest (2010) Arab Spring protests (2011)The First Sahrawi Intifada
First Sahrawi Intifada
began in 1999 and lasted until 2004,[1] transforming into the Independence Intifada in 2005
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Government Of Western Sahara
The politics of Western Sahara take place in a framework of an area claimed by both the partially recognized Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and the Kingdom of Morocco, which controls the majority of the Occupied by Spain from 1884 to 1975, as Spanish Sahara, the territory has been listed with the United Nations
United Nations
as a case of incomplete decolonization since the 1960s, making it the last major territory to effectively remain a colony, according to the UN.[1] The conflict is largely between the Kingdom of
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Zemla Intifada
Spanish governmentTerritorial police Spanish LegionNumberThousands~100Casualties2-11 civilian killed, hundreds wounded or detainedSeveral injuredv t eSahrawi independence movement Zemla Intifada
Zemla Intifada
(1970) POLISARIO insurgency (1973–1975) Western Sahara War
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Sahrawi People
30% of Mauritania
Mauritania
Population also 26,000 (Refugees)[6][7] [8]   Spain 3,000[9]–12,000[10]Languages Hassaniya Arabic
Hassaniya Arabic
(native
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Western Sahara
Western Sahara
Sahara
(/- səˈhɑːrə, -ˈhɛərə, -ˈhærə/ ( listen);[2] Arabic: الصحراء الغربية‎‎ aṣ-Ṣaḥrā’ al-Gharbīyah, Berber languages: Taneẓroft Tutrimt, Spanish and French: Sahara
Sahara
Occidental) is a disputed territory in the Maghreb
Maghreb
region of North Africa, partially controlled by the self-proclaimed Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and partially Moroccan-occupied, bordered by Morocco
Morocco
proper to the north, Algeria
Algeria
to the northeast, Mauritania
Mauritania
to the east and south, and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west. Its surface area amounts to 266,000 square kilometres (103,000 sq mi). It is one of the most sparsely populated territories in the world, mainly consisting of desert flatlands
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Legal Status Of Western Sahara
Western Sahara, formerly the Spanish colony of Spanish Sahara, is a disputed territory claimed by both the Kingdom of Morocco
Morocco
and the Polisario Front. It is listed by the United Nations
United Nations
(UN) as a non-decolonized territory and is thus included in the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. Since the Madrid Accords
Madrid Accords
of 1975, a part of Western Sahara
Western Sahara
has been administered by Morocco
Morocco
as the Southern Provinces. Another section, the Liberated Territories, is administered by the Polisario Front
Polisario Front
as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
(SADR). Mauritania
Mauritania
administers temporally the western half of the Ras Nouadhibou
Ras Nouadhibou
Peninsula
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