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STS-118
(left to right) Mastracchio, Morgan, Hobaugh, Kelly, Caldwell, Williams and Drew. Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
program← STS-117 STS-120 → STS-118
STS-118
was a space shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS) flown by the orbiter Endeavour. STS-118
STS-118
lifted off on 8 August 2007 from launch pad 39A at Kennedy Space Center
Kennedy Space Center
(KSC), Florida and landed at the Shuttle Landing Facility
Shuttle Landing Facility
at KSC on 21 August 2007. This was the first flight of Endeavour since STS-113
STS-113
in November 2002, which was also the last successful shuttle flight before STS-107
STS-107
which culminated in the loss of Columbia when it disintegrated during reentry. STS-118
STS-118
pilot Charles Hobaugh had been the entry team CAPCOM for STS-107
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NASA
The National Aeronautics
Aeronautics
and Space Administration ( NASA
NASA
/ˈnæsə/) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.[note 1] President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
established NASA
NASA
in 1958[10] with a distinctly civilian (rather than military) orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science
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Apsis
An apsis (Greek: ἁψίς; plural apsides /ˈæpsɪdiːz/, Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in an object's orbit
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Control Moment Gyroscope
A control moment gyroscope (CMG) is an attitude control device generally used in spacecraft attitude control systems. A CMG consists of a spinning rotor and one or more motorized gimbals that tilt the rotor’s angular momentum. As the rotor tilts, the changing angular momentum causes a gyroscopic torque that rotates the spacecraft.[1][2]Contents1 Mechanics 2 Design varieties2.1 Single-gimbal 2.2 Dual-gimbal 2.3 Variable-speed3 Potential problems3.1 Singularities 3.2 Saturation 3.3 Anti-parallel alignment 3.4 Hitting the gimbal stops4 Applications4.1 Skylab 4.2 Gyrodynes on Salyut and Mir 4.3 International Space Station 4.4 Proposed5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksMechanics[edit] CMGs differ from reaction wheels. The latter apply torque simply by changing rotor spin speed, but the former tilt the rotor's spin axis without necessarily changing its spin speed. CMGs are also far more power efficient
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Starboard
Port and starboard
Port and starboard
are nautical and aeronautical terms for left and right, respectively. Port is the left-hand side of a vessel or aircraft, facing forward. Starboard is the right-hand side, facing forward. Since port and starboard never change, they are unambiguous references that are not relative to the observer.[2][3] The term starboard derives from the Old English steorbord, meaning the side on which the ship is steered. Before ships had rudders on their centrelines, they were steered with a steering oar at the stern of the ship and, because more people are right-handed, on the right-hand side of it.[2] Since the steering oar was on the right side of the boat, it would tie up at the wharf on the other side. Hence the left side was called port.[4] Formerly, larboard was used instead of port
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Scott E. Parazynski
Scott Edward Parazynski (born July 28, 1961 in Little Rock, Arkansas) is an American physician and a former NASA
NASA
astronaut. A veteran of five Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
flights and seven spacewalks, Parazynski's latest mission was STS-120
STS-120
in October, 2007 – highlighted by a dramatic, unplanned EVA to repair a live solar array. He retired from NASA
NASA
in March 2009 to pursue opportunities in the private sector. He is the only person to have both flown in space and summited Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth.[1]Contents1 Personal 2 Education 3 Organizations 4 Awards and honors 5 Medical career 6 NASA
NASA
career 7 Spaceflight experience 8 References 9 External linksPersonal[edit] Parazynski considers Palo Alto, California, and Evergreen, Colorado, to be his hometowns. He is married to Meenakshi Wadhwa. He has two children with first wife Gail
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Michael D. Griffin
Michael Douglas Griffin (born November 1, 1949) is an American physicist and aerospace engineer who is the current Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering.[1] He previously served as Administrator of NASA, the U.S. space agency, from April 13, 2005, to January 20, 2009. As NASA
NASA
Administrator Griffin oversaw such areas as the future of human spaceflight, the fate of the Hubble telescope and NASA's role in understanding climate change. In April 2009 Griffin, who has an academic background, was named eminent scholar and a professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. Griffin had worked at NASA
NASA
prior to serving as NASA
NASA
Administrator, including as Associate Administrator for Exploration
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NASA Administrator
The Administrator and Deputy Administrator of NASA
NASA
are the highest-ranked officials of NASA, the space agency of the United States Federal Government. The Administrator serves as the senior space science advisor to the President of the United States. According to NASA, the role of the Administrator is to "lead the NASA
NASA
team and manage its resources to advance the Vision for Space Exploration."[1] The Deputy Administrator of NASA
NASA
"serves as the agency’s second in command and is responsible to the administrator for providing overall leadership, planning, and policy direction for the agency. They represent NASA
NASA
to the Executive Office of the President, Congress, heads of federal and other appropriate government agencies, international organizations, and external organizations and communities
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Astronaut Ranks And Positions
Astronauts hold a variety of ranks and positions, and each of these roles carries responsibilities that are essential to the operation of a spacecraft. A spacecraft's cockpit, filled with sophisticated equipment, requires skills differing from those used to manage the scientific equipment on board, and so on.Contents1 NASA ranks and positions1.1 Ranks 1.2 Positions2 RKA ranks and positions2.1 Ranks 2.2 Positions3 International space station positions 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksNASA ranks and positions[edit] Ranks[edit] Members of the NASA Astronaut
Astronaut
Corps hold one of two ranks. Astronaut Candidate is the rank of those training to be NASA astronauts. Upon graduation, candidates are promoted to Astronaut
Astronaut
and receive their Astronaut
Astronaut
Pin
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Orbiter Processing Facility
An Orbiter Processing Facility
Orbiter Processing Facility
(OPF) was one of three hangars where U.S. space shuttle orbiters underwent maintenance between flights. All three such facilities, OPF-1, OPF-2 and OPF-3, were located at NASA's Kennedy Space Center
Kennedy Space Center
in Florida
Florida
at Launch Complex 39. They were located west of the Vehicle Assembly Building, where the orbiter was mated with its External Tank
External Tank
and Solid Rocket Boosters before transport to the launch pad
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Michael D. Leinbach
Michael D. Leinbach (born c. 1953) was the Shuttle Launch Director at NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida.[1] He was responsible for activities in the overall shuttle launch countdown, including planning, policy, and execution.[1]Contents1 Early life 2 NASA career 3 Awards 4 References 5 External linksEarly life[edit] Leinbach was born in Reading, Pennsylvania, and graduated from Yorktown High School, Arlington, Virginia in 1971. He received a Bachelor of Science in Architecture in 1976, and a Master of Engineering in Civil Engineering (emphasis in structural dynamics) in 1981 from the University of Virginia.[1][2][3] NASA career[edit] In 1984, Leinbach joined NASA as a structural engineer. Initially, Leinbach was a lead design engineer for various launch pad systems, including weather protection and the Emergency Egress Slide Wire system
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Thermal Protection System
Atmospheric entry
Atmospheric entry
is the movement of an object from outer space into and through the gases of an atmosphere of a planet, dwarf planet or natural satellite. There are two main types of atmospheric entry: uncontrolled entry, such as the entry of astronomical objects, space debris or bolides; and controlled entry (or reentry) of a spacecraft capable of being navigated or following a predetermined course. Technologies and procedures allowing the controlled atmospheric entry, descent and landing of spacecraft are collectively termed as EDL.Animated illustration of different phases as a meteoroid enters the Earth's atmosphere to become visible as a meteor and land as a meteoriteAtmospheric drag and aerodynamic heating can cause atmospheric breakup capable of completely disintegrating smaller objects
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International Designator
The International Designator, also known as COSPAR designation, and in the United States as NSSDC ID, is an international naming convention for satellites. It consists of the launch year, a 3-digit incrementing launch number of that year and up to a 3-letter code representing the sequential identifier of a piece in a launch.[citation needed] For example, 1990-037A is the Space Shuttle Discovery
Space Shuttle Discovery
on mission STS-31, which carried the Hubble Space Telescope
Hubble Space Telescope
(1990-037B) into space. This launch was the 37th known successful launch worldwide in 1990. The number reveals that it was launched in 1990 and that it was the 37th launch made that year
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PMA-2
The Pressurized Mating Adapter
Pressurized Mating Adapter
(PMA) is a spacecraft adapter that converts the Common Berthing Mechanism
Common Berthing Mechanism
(CBM) used on the US Orbital Segment to APAS-95 docking ports. There are three PMAs located on the International Space Station
International Space Station
(ISS). The first two PMAs were launched with the Unity module in 1998 aboard STS-88
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Orbital Period
The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars. For objects in the Solar System, this is often referred to as the sidereal period, determined by a 360° revolution of one celestial body around another, e.g. the Earth
Earth
orbiting the Sun. The name sidereal is added as it implies that the object returns to the same position relative to the fixed stars projected in the sky. When describing orbits of binary stars, the orbital period is usually referred to as just the period
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