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STS-109
(L-R): Michael J. Massimino, Richard M. Linnehan, Duane G. Carey, Scott D. Altman, Nancy J. Currie, John M. Grunsfeld
John M. Grunsfeld
and James H. Newman. Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
program← STS-108 STS-110 → STS-109
STS-109
(SM3B) was a Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
mission that launched from the Kennedy Space Center
Kennedy Space Center
on 1 March 2002
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NASA
The National Aeronautics
Aeronautics
and Space Administration ( NASA
NASA
/ˈnæsə/) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.[note 1] President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
established NASA
NASA
in 1958[10] with a distinctly civilian (rather than military) orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science
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Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39
Launch Complex 39 (LC-39) is a rocket launch site at the John F. Kennedy Space Center
Kennedy Space Center
on Merritt Island in Florida, United States. The site and its collection of facilities were originally built for the Apollo program, and later modified for the Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
program. As of 2017, only Launch Complex 39A is active, launching SpaceX's Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy. Pad 39B is being modified to launch NASA's Space Launch System
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Canadarm
The Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS), also known as Canadarm ( Canadarm
Canadarm
1), is a series of robotic arms that were used on the Space Shuttle orbiters to deploy, maneuver and capture payloads
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International Designator
The International Designator, also known as COSPAR designation, and in the United States as NSSDC ID, is an international naming convention for satellites. It consists of the launch year, a 3-digit incrementing launch number of that year and up to a 3-letter code representing the sequential identifier of a piece in a launch.[citation needed] For example, 1990-037A is the Space Shuttle Discovery
Space Shuttle Discovery
on mission STS-31, which carried the Hubble Space Telescope
Hubble Space Telescope
(1990-037B) into space. This launch was the 37th known successful launch worldwide in 1990. The number reveals that it was launched in 1990 and that it was the 37th launch made that year
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Sunrise
Sunrise
Sunrise
or sun up is the instant at which the upper edge of the Sun appears over the horizon in the morning.[1] The term can also refer to the entire process of the Sun
Sun
crossing the horizon and its accompanying atmospheric effects.[2]Contents1 Terminology1.1 "Rise" 1.2 Beginning and end2 Measurement2.1 Angle 2.2 Time of day 2.3 Location on the horizon3 Appearance3.1 Colors 3.2 Optical illusions and other phenomena4 See also 5 References 6 External linksTerminology[edit] "Rise"[edit] Although the Sun
Sun
appears to "rise" from the horizon, it is actually the Earth's motion that causes the Sun
Sun
to appear
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Space Shuttle Program
The Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
program was the fourth human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished routine transportation for Earth-to-orbit crew and cargo from 1981 to 2011. Its official name, Space Transportation System (STS), was taken from a 1969 plan for a system of reusable spacecraft of which it was the only item funded for development.[1] The Space Shuttle—composed of an orbiter launched with two reusable solid rocket boosters and a disposable external fuel tank—carried up to eight astronauts and up to 50,000 lb (23,000 kg) of payload into low Earth
Earth
orbit (LEO)
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Orbital Period
The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars. For objects in the Solar System, this is often referred to as the sidereal period, determined by a 360° revolution of one celestial body around another, e.g. the Earth
Earth
orbiting the Sun. The name sidereal is added as it implies that the object returns to the same position relative to the fixed stars projected in the sky. When describing orbits of binary stars, the orbital period is usually referred to as just the period
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Orbital Inclination
Orbital inclination
Orbital inclination
measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body. It is expressed as the angle between a reference plane and the orbital plane or axis of direction of the orbiting object. For a satellite orbiting the Earth
Earth
directly above the equator, the plane of the satellite's orbit is the same as the Earth's equatorial plane, and the satellite's orbital inclination is 0°. The general case for a circular orbit is that it is tilted, spending half an orbit over the northern hemisphere and half over the southern
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Apsis
An apsis (Greek: ἁψίς; plural apsides /ˈæpsɪdiːz/, Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in an object's orbit
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Low Earth Orbit
A low Earth
Earth
orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth
Earth
with an altitude of 2,000 km (1,200 mi) or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes. Objects below approximately 160 km (99 mi) will experience very rapid orbital decay and altitude loss due to atmospheric drag.[1][2] With the exception of the 24 astronauts who flew lunar flights in the Apollo program
Apollo program
during the four-year period spanning 1968 through 1972, all human spaceflights have taken place in LEO or below. The International Space Station
International Space Station
conducts operations in LEO. The altitude record for a human spaceflight in LEO was Gemini 11
Gemini 11
with an apogee of 1,374.1 kilometres (853.8 mi)
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Geocentric Orbit
A geocentric orbit or Earth
Earth
orbit involves any object orbiting Planet Earth, such as the Moon
Moon
or artificial satellites
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Astronaut Ranks And Positions
Astronauts hold a variety of ranks and positions, and each of these roles carries responsibilities that are essential to the operation of a spacecraft. A spacecraft's cockpit, filled with sophisticated equipment, requires skills differing from those used to manage the scientific equipment on board, and so on.Contents1 NASA ranks and positions1.1 Ranks 1.2 Positions2 RKA ranks and positions2.1 Ranks 2.2 Positions3 International space station positions 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksNASA ranks and positions[edit] Ranks[edit] Members of the NASA Astronaut
Astronaut
Corps hold one of two ranks. Astronaut Candidate is the rank of those training to be NASA astronauts. Upon graduation, candidates are promoted to Astronaut
Astronaut
and receive their Astronaut
Astronaut
Pin
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Shuttle Landing Facility
The Shuttle Landing Facility
Shuttle Landing Facility
(SLF) (ICAO: KTTS, FAA LID: TTS) is an airport located on Merritt Island in Brevard County, Florida, USA. It is a part of the John F. Kennedy Space Center
John F. Kennedy Space Center
(KSC), and was used by NASA's Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
for landing until the program's end in 2011. It was also used for takeoffs and landings for NASA
NASA
training jets such as the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft
Shuttle Carrier Aircraft
and for civilian aircraft.[1][2] Starting in 2015, Space Florida
Florida
manages and operates the facility under a 30-year lease from NASA
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Kennedy Space Center
The John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
Space Center (KSC) is one of ten National Aeronautics and Space Administration field centers. Since December 1968, Kennedy Space Center
Kennedy Space Center
has been NASA's primary launch center of human spaceflight
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Outline Of Space Science
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to space science: Space science encompasses all of the scientific disciplines that involve space exploration and study natural phenomena and physical bodies occurring in outer space, such as space medicine and astrobiology.[1][2] The following outline is an overview of and topical guide to space science:Contents1 Branches of space science1.1 Space-related interdisciplinary fields2 Astronomy 3 Space exploration 4 Astronautics 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksBranches of space science[edit]One proposed timeline of the origin of space, from physical cosmologyAstronomyOutline of astronomyFields of astronomy defined by approach Observational
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