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SMERSH
SMERSH
SMERSH
(Russian: СМЕРШ) was an umbrella organisation for three independent counter-intelligence agencies in the Red Army
Red Army
formed in late 1942 or even earlier, but officially announced only on 14 April 1943. The name SMERSH
SMERSH
was coined by Joseph Stalin
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Karelian Front
The Karelian Front was a Front (a formation of Army Group size) of the Soviet Union's Red Army
Red Army
during World War II, and operated in Karelia.Contents1 Wartime 2 Order of battle 3 Major operations 4 Commanders 5 Notes 6 References 7 See alsoWartime[edit] The Karelian Front was created in August 1941 when Northern Front was split into Karelian Front and Leningrad Front
Leningrad Front
to take account of the different military developments and requirements on the Leningrad approaches versus those along the Finnish border to the Arctic. It remained in existence until the end of the war. The front covered the sector north of Lake Ladoga
Lake Ladoga
and the Svir River to the Arctic Coast near Murmansk. It was involved in combat with both Finnish and German forces along the Soviet-Finnish border
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Eastern Workers (Nazi Germany)
Ostarbeiter (German: [ˈʔɔstˌaɐ̯baɪtɐ], lit. "Eastern worker") was a Nazi German designation for foreign slave workers gathered from occupied Central and Eastern Europe to perform forced labor in Germany during World War II. Deportations of civilians commenced at the beginning of the war and reached unprecedented levels following Operation Barbarossa of 1941. The Ostarbeiters were apprehended from the newly formed German districts of Reichskommissariat Ukraine, General Government Distrikt Galizien, and Reichskommissariat Ostland which comprised the territories of German occupied Poland as well as formerly Soviet occupied Poland since 1939, and the Soviet Union itself
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Gulag
The Gulag
Gulag
(Russian: ГУЛАГ, IPA: [ɡʊˈlak] ( listen); acronym of Glavnoye Upravleniye Lagerej, Main Camps' Administration or Chief Administration of [Corrective Labor] Camps) was the government agency in charge of the Soviet forced labor camp system that was created under Vladimir Lenin[1][2] and reached its peak during Joseph Stalin's rule from the 1930s to the 1950s. The term is also commonly used in English language to refer to any forced-labor camp in the Soviet Union, including camps that existed in post- Stalin
Stalin
times.[3][4] The camps housed a wide range of convicts, from petty criminals to political prisoners. Large numbers were convicted by simplified procedures, such as NKVD
NKVD
troikas and other instruments of extrajudicial punishment
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POW
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict
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Nikolay Gerasimovich Kuznetsov
Order of Ushakov
Order of Ushakov
(2) Nikolay Gerasimovich Kuznetsov (Russian: Никола́й Гера́симович Кузнецо́в; July 24, 1904 – December 6, 1974) was a Soviet naval officer who achieved the rank of Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and served as People's Commissar of the Navy during The Second World War
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Desertion
In military terminology, desertion is the abandonment of a duty or post without permission (a pass, liberty or leave) and is done with the intention of not returning
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Counter-espionage
Counterintelligence
Counterintelligence
refers to information gathered and activities conducted to protect against espionage, other intelligence activities, sabotage, or assassinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign powers, organizations or persons or international terrorist activities, sometimes including personnel, physical, document
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Wetwork
Wetwork (Russian: мокрое дело, tr. mokroye delo)[1] is a euphemism for murder or assassination, alluding to spilling blood. The expression and the similar wet job, wet affair, or wet operation—all calques of Russian terms for such activities—can be traced to criminal slang from at least the 19th century[2][3] and originally meant robbery that involved murder, i.e., spilling blood. These operations are reputed to have been handled by CIA, and also the KGB
KGB
by Spetsbureau 13, colorfully known as the "Department of Wet Affairs" (Otdel mokrykh del).[4][5] See also[edit]Black operation LiquidateReferences[edit]^ Henry S. A. Becket (1986). The Dictionary of Espionage: Spookspeak into English. Stein & Day.  ^ Максимов С. В. (1869). "Музыка или словарь карманников, т. е
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Counter-insurgency
A counter-insurgency or counterinsurgency[1] (COIN) can be defined as "comprehensive civilian and military efforts taken to simultaneously defeat and contain insurgency and address its root causes".[2] An insurgency is a rebellion against a constituted authority when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents.[3] It isthe organized use of subversion and violence to seize, nullify or challenge political control of a region. As such, it is primarily a political struggle, in which both sides use armed force to create space for their political, economic and influence activities to be effective.[2] Counter-insurgency
Counter-insurgency
campaigns of duly-elected or politically recognized governments take place during war, occupation by a foreign military or police force, and when internal conflicts that involve subversion and armed rebellion occur
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Peace
Peace
Peace
is the concept of harmony and the absence of hostility. In a behavioral sense, peace is a lack of conflict and freedom from fear of violence between individuals and heterogenous social groups. Throughout history some of the most extraodinary and benevolent leaders have used peace talks to establish a certain type of behavioral restraint that has resulted in the establishment of regional peace or economic growth through various forms of agreements or peace treaties. Such behavioral restraint has often resulted in de-escalation of rhetorical and physical conflicts, greater economic interactivity, and consequently substantial prosperity. The avoidance of war or violent hostility can be the result of thoughtful active listening and communication that enables greater genuine mutual understanding and therefore compromise
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Anti-Communist
Anti-communism
Anti-communism
is opposition to communism. Organized anti-communism developed after the 1917 October Revolution
Revolution
in Russia and it reached global dimensions during the Cold War, when the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
engaged in an intense rivalry. Anti-communism
Anti-communism
has been an element of movements holding many different political positions, including nationalist, social democratic, liberal, conservative, fascist, capitalist, anarchist and even socialist viewpoints. The first organization specifically dedicated to opposing communism was the Russian White movement, which fought in the Russian Civil War starting in 1918 against the recently established Communist government
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CPSU
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Коммунисти́ческая па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, tr. Kommunistícheskaya pártiya Sovétskogo Soyúza, IPA: [kəmʊnʲɪsʲtʲˈitɕɪskəjə ˈpartʲɪjə sɐvʲˈetskəvə sɐˈjuzə]), abbreviated in English as CPSU (Russian: КПСС, tr. KPSS[a]) was the founding and ruling political party of the Union of Soviet
Soviet
Socialist Republics (USSR or Soviet
Soviet
Union). The CPSU was the sole governing party of the Soviet Union until 1990, when the Congress of People's Deputies modified the article of the constitution which had granted the CPSU a monopoly over the political system
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Russian Liberation Army
World War IIEastern FrontOperation April Wind Prague
Prague
UprisingWestern FrontNurembergCommandersNotable commanders Andrey Vlasov Sergei Bunyachenko Mikhail Meandrov Viktor MaltsevInsigniaBadgeFlag of the KONRThe Russian Liberation Army
Russian Liberation Army
(Russian: Русская освободительная армия, Russkaya osvoboditel'naya armiya, abbreviated as РОА, ROA, also known as the Vlasov army (Власовская армия, Vlasovskaya armiya)) was a group of predominantly Russian forces that fought under German command during World War II. The army was led by Andrey Vlasov, a defected Red Army general, and members of the army are often referred to as Vlasovtsy (Власовцы)
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Pyotr Krasnov
Pyotr Nikolayevich Krasnov (Russian: Пётр Николаевич Краснов; September 22 (September 10 old style), 1869 – January 17, 1947), sometimes referred to in English as Peter Krasnov, was a Don Cossack
Cossack
historian and officer, promoted to Lieutenant General of the Russian army when the revolution broke out in 1917, and one of the leaders of the counter-revolutionary White movement afterwards.Contents1 Russian Army 2 Russian Civil War 3 Exile in France
France
and Germany 4 Repatriation and death 5 Personal 6 Honours and awards 7 See also 8 Writings 9 ReferencesRussian Army[edit] Pyotr Krasnov
Pyotr Krasnov
was born in 1869 in Saint Petersburg, son to lieutenant-general Nikolay Krasnov and grandson to general Ivan Krasnov. In 1888, Krasnov graduated from Pavlovsk Military School and later served in the Ataman
Ataman
regiment of the Life Guards
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Organization Of Ukrainian Nationalists
The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists
Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists
(OUN) (Ukrainian: Організація Українських Націоналістів, (ОУН), Orhanizatsiya Ukrayins'kykh Natsionalistiv) was a Ukrainian far-right fascist political organization established in 1929 in Vienna; it first operated in Western Ukraine
Ukraine
(at the time part of interwar Poland). The OUN emerged as a union between the Ukrainian Military Organization, smaller radical right-wing groups, and right-wing Ukrainian nationalists and intellectuals represented by Dmytro Dontsov, Yevhen Konovalets, Mykola Stsyborsky and other figures.[2][nb 1] The OUN sought to infiltrate legal political parties, universities and other political structures and institutions
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