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S.S. Sturmbrigade R.O.N.A
S.S. Sturmbrigade R.O.N.A.
S.S. Sturmbrigade R.O.N.A.
(also known as the Kaminski Brigade) was an anti-partisan formation composed of people from the so-called Lokot Autonomy territory in the Nazi Germany-occupied areas of Russia
Russia
during World War II.[1] First appearing in late 1941 as auxiliary police, the unit initially numbered 200 personnel. By mid-1943, its numbers had increased to 10-12 thousand and were equipped with captured Soviet tanks and artillery.[1] The unit's leader Bronislav Kaminski
Bronislav Kaminski
named it Russian National Liberation Army (Russkaya Osvoboditelnaya Narodnaya Armiya, RONA). After the failure of Operation Citadel, personnel of the R.O.N.A. retreated to Belarus and the Lepel
Lepel
area of Vitebsk, where they were involved in anti-partisan activities, committing numerous atrocities against the civilian population
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Operation Citadel
Soviet victory[1]Axis loses ability to initiate strategic offensive operationsTerritorial changesSoviets prevent a German breakthrough and inflict high attrition on German forcesBelligerents Nazi Germany  Soviet UnionCommanders and leaders Erich von Manstein Günther von Kluge Hermann Hoth Werner Kempf Walter Model Georgy Zhukov Konstantin Rokossovsky Nikolai Vatutin Ivan KonevStrengthOperation Citadel:780,900 men[2] 2,928 tanks[2] 9,966 guns and mortars[3]Operation Citadel:1,910,361 men[4] 5,128 tanks[4] 25,013 guns and mortars[3]Casualties and lossesOperation Citadel:[a]54,182 men[5][b][6] 323 tanks and assault guns destroyed,[7] Between 600[8] - 1,612 tanks and assault guns damaged[9][10] 159 aircraft[5][11] c
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Oryol
Oryol
Oryol
or Orel (Russian: Орёл, IPA: [ɐˈrʲɵl], lit. eagle) is a city and the administrative center of Oryol
Oryol
Oblast, Russia, located on the Oka River, approximately 360 kilometers (220 mi) south-southwest of Moscow. Population: 317,747 (2010 Census);[6] 333,310 (2002 Census);[10] 336,862 (1989 Census).[11]Contents1 History 2 Politics 3 Administrative and municipal status 4 Transportation4.1 Tram5 Climate 6 Mayors 7 International relations7.1 Twin towns and sister cities8 Notable people 9 References9.1 Notes 9.2 Sources10 External linksHistory[edit]A monument of 400th birthplace anniversary, nearby Duchy ParkWhile there are no historical records, archaeological evidence shows that a fortress settlement existed between the Oka and Orlik Rivers as early as the 12th century, when the land was a part of the Principality of Chernigov
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Cyrillic
The Cyrillic script
Cyrillic script
/sɪˈrɪlɪk/ is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia). It is based on the Early Cyrillic alphabet developed during the 9th century AD at the Preslav Literary School in the First Bulgarian Empire.[2][3][4] It is the basis of alphabets used in various languages, especially those of Orthodox Slavic origin, and non- Slavic languages
Slavic languages
influenced by Russian
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Soviet Union
The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: [sɐˈvʲɛt͡skʲɪj sɐˈjus] ( listen)), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: [sɐˈjus sɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪx sətsɨəlʲɪsˈtʲitɕɪskʲɪx rʲɪˈspublʲɪk] ( listen)), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics,[a] its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
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Bryansk
Bryansk
Bryansk
(Russian: Брянск, IPA: [brʲænsk]) is a city and the administrative center of Bryansk
Bryansk
Oblast, Russia, located 379 kilometers (235 mi) southwest of Moscow. Population: 415,721 (2010 Census);[7] 431,526 (2002 Census);[13] 452,160 (1989 Census).[14]Contents1 History 2 Administrative and municipal status 3 Economy3.1 Transportation4 Notable people 5 Climate 6 Culture and education 7 Twin towns and sister cities 8 See also 9 References9.1 Notes 9.2 Sources10 External linksHistory[edit] The first written mention of Bryansk
Bryansk
was in 1146, in the Hypatian Codex, as Debryansk (appears variously as Дъбряньск, Дьбряньск, and in other spellings).[11] Its name is derived from "дъбръ", a Slavic word for "ditch", "lowland", or "dense woodland";[15][16] the area was known for its dense woods, of which very little remains today
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Alcohol
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a saturated carbon atom.[2] The term alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol ethanol (ethyl alcohol), which is used as a drug and is the main alcohol present in alcoholic beverages. The suffix -ol appears in the IUPAC
IUPAC
chemical name of all substances where the hydroxyl group is the functional group with the highest priority; in substances where a higher priority group is present the prefix hydroxy- will appear in the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemistry
(IUPAC) name. The suffix -ol in non-systematic names (such as paracetamol or cholesterol) also typically indicates that the substance includes a hydroxyl functional group and, so, can be termed an alcohol. But many substances, particularly sugars (examples glucose and sucrose) contain hydroxyl functional groups without using the suffix
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Eastern Front (World War II)
Soviet victory Soviet Union
Soviet Union
occupies Central, Eastern, Northeastern and Southeastern Europe and establishes pro-Soviet communist puppet governments in countries including Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and East Germany. Establishment of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia. Beginning of the Cold War
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Starosta
The title of starost or starosta (Cyrillic: старост/а, Latin: capitaneus, German: Starost) designates an official or unofficial leader, used in various contexts through most of Slavic history. One can translate it as "senior" or "elder". The word comes from the Slavic root star-, "old". In Poland, a starosta would administer a territory called a starostwo. In the early Middle Ages, the starosta was the head of a Slavic community or of other communities so one finds designations such as church starosta, artel starosta, etc
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Volost
Volost (Russian: во́лость, IPA: [ˈvoləsʲtʲ]) was a traditional administrative subdivision in Eastern Europe. In earlier East Slavic history, volost was a name for the territory ruled by the knyaz, a principality; either as an absolute ruler or with varying degree of autonomy from the Velikiy Knyaz
Knyaz
(Grand Prince). Starting from the end of the 14th century, volost was a unit of administrative division in Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Poland, Muscovy, lands of modern Latvia and Ukraine. Since about the 16th century it was a part of provincial districts, that were called "uyezd" in Muscovy
Muscovy
and the later Russian Empire. Each uyezd had several volosts that were subordinated to the uyezd city. After the abolition of Russian serfdom
Russian serfdom
in 1861, volost became a unit of peasant's local self-rule
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Alexander Saburov
Alexander Nikolayevich Saburov (Russian: Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Сабу́ров; (1 August 1908 - 15 April 1974), one of the leaders of Soviet partisan
Soviet partisan
movement in Ukraine
Ukraine
and western Russia
Russia
during the German-Soviet War. Born in a peasant family of Russian ethnicity in Yarushki, Vyatka Governorate (now part of Izhevsk, Udmurtia),[1] Saburov joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Communist Party of the Soviet Union
in 1932 and the NKVD
NKVD
in 1938. A few months after the German invasion of USSR in the autumn of 1941, Saburov organized first guerrilla units in Bryansk, Oryol and Sumy regions occupied by the enemy. His partisan unit numbered around 1800 men and during the winter of 1941-42 effectively harassed German troops operating behind the enemy lines
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2nd Army (Wehrmacht)
The 2nd Army (German: 2. Armee Oberkommando) was a World War II
World War II
field army.Contents1 Combat Chronicle1.1 Commanders2 See also 3 FootnotesCombat Chronicle[edit] The 2nd Army was activated on 20 October 1939, with General Maximilian Reichsfreiherr von Weichs in command. First seeing service in France[citation needed], the army was involved in the invasion of the Balkans, before offensive operations in Ukraine
Ukraine
as part of Operation Barbarossa. In 1942 the II
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Reconnaissance
Reconnaissance
Reconnaissance
(US Army FM 7-92; Chap. 4)In military operations, reconnaissance or scouting is the exploration outside an area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about natural features and enemy presence. Examples of reconnaissance include patrolling by troops (skirmishers, Long Range Reconnaissance
Reconnaissance
Patrol, U.S. Army Rangers, cavalry scouts, or military intelligence specialists), ships or submarines, manned/unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, satellites, or by setting up covert observation posts
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Generaloberst
Generaloberst, in English Colonel General, was, in Germany and Austria-Hungary—the German Reichswehr
Reichswehr
and Wehrmacht, the Austro-Hungarian Common Army, and the East German
East German
National People's Army, as well as the respective police services—the second highest general officer rank, ranking above full general but below general field marshal. It was equivalent to Generaladmiral
Generaladmiral
in the Kriegsmarine until 1945, or to Flottenadmiral in the Volksmarine
Volksmarine
until 1990. The rank was the highest ordinary military rank and the highest military rank awarded in peacetime; the higher rank of general field marshal was only awarded in wartime by the head of state
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Rudolf Schmidt
Rudolf Schmidt
Rudolf Schmidt
(12 May 1886 – 7 April 1957) was a general in the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
during World War II
World War II
who commanded the 2nd Panzer Army on the Eastern Front. He was a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross
Iron Cross
with Oak Leaves.Contents1 Career 2 Awards 3 References3.1 Citations 3.2 BibliographyCareer[edit] Schmidt joined the German Imperial Army
German Imperial Army
in 1906 and served during World War I. He was retained in the Reichswehr
Reichswehr
where he served in staff roles. In October 1936 he was promoted to Generalmajor and appointed commander of the 1st Panzer Division. In 1939 Schmidt led the division in the invasion of Poland. On 1 February 1940 he was appointed commanding general of the XXXIX Panzer Corps
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Army Group Centre
Army Group Centre (German: Heeresgruppe Mitte) was the name of two distinct German strategic army groups that fought on the Eastern Front in World War II. The first Army Group Centre was created on 22 June 1941, as one of three German Army formations assigned to the invasion of the Soviet Union (Operation Barbarossa). On 25 January 1945, after it was encircled in the Königsberg
Königsberg
pocket, Army Group Centre was renamed Army Group North (Heeresgruppe Nord), and Army Group A (Heeresgruppe A) became Army Group Centre
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