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S-IVB
The S-IVB
S-IVB
(sometimes S-4B, always pronounced "ess four bee") was built by the Douglas Aircraft Company
Douglas Aircraft Company
and served as the third stage on the Saturn V
Saturn V
and second stage on the Saturn IB. It had one J-2 engine. For lunar missions it was fired twice: first for the orbit insertion after second stage cutoff, and then for translunar injection (TLI).Contents1 History 2 Configuration 3 Stages built 4 Future 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] The S-IVB
S-IVB
evolved from the upper stage of the Saturn I
Saturn I
rocket, the S-IV, and was the first stage of the Saturn V
Saturn V
to be designed. The S-IV used a cluster of six engines but used the same fuels as the S-IVB
S-IVB
— liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen
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Skylab 2
Due to a NASA
NASA
management error, manned Skylab
Skylab
mission patches were designed in conflict with the official mission numbering scheme.L-R: Kerwin, Conrad, and Weitz Skylab
Skylab
program←  Skylab
Skylab
1 Skylab
Skylab
3 → Skylab
Skylab
2 (also SL-2 and SLM-1[4]) was the first manned mission to Skylab, the first U.S. orbital space station. The mission was launched on a Saturn IB
Saturn IB
rocket and carried a three-person crew to the station. The name Skylab
Skylab
2 also refers to the vehicle used for that mission. The Skylab
Skylab
2 mission established a twenty-eight-day record for human spaceflight duration
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Cape Canaveral
Cape Canaveral, from the Spanish Cabo Cañaveral, is a cape in Brevard County, Florida, United States, near the center of the state's Atlantic coast. Known as Cape Kennedy from 1963 to 1973, it lies east of Merritt Island, separated from it by the Banana River. It was discovered by the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León
Juan Ponce de León
in 1513. It is part of a region known as the Space Coast, and is the site of the Cape Canaveral
Cape Canaveral
Air Force Station. Since many U.S. spacecraft have been launched from both the station and the Kennedy Space Center
Kennedy Space Center
on adjacent Merritt Island, the two are sometimes conflated with each other
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Dinitrogen Tetroxide
Dinitrogen tetroxide, commonly referred to as nitrogen tetroxide, is the chemical compound N2O4. It is a useful reagent in chemical synthesis. It forms an equilibrium mixture with nitrogen dioxide. Dinitrogen tetroxide
Dinitrogen tetroxide
is a powerful oxidizer that is hypergolic (spontaneously reacts) upon contact with various forms of hydrazine, which has made the pair a common bipropellant for rockets.Contents1 Structure and properties 2 Production 3 Use as a rocket propellant3.1 The Apollo-Soyuz mishap4 Power generation using N2O4 5 Chemical reactions5.1 Intermediate in the manufacture of nitric acid 5.2 Synthesis of metal nitrates6 References 7 External linksStructure and properties[edit] Dinitrogen tetroxide
Dinitrogen tetroxide
could be regarded as two nitro groups (-NO2) bonded together
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Monomethyl Hydrazine
Monomethylhydrazine
Monomethylhydrazine
(MMH) is a volatile hydrazine chemical with the chemical formula CH3(NH)NH2. It is used as a rocket propellant in bipropellant rocket engines because it is hypergolic with various oxidizers such as nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) and nitric acid (HNO3). As a propellant, it is described in specification MIL-PRF-27404.[4] MMH is a hydrazine derivative that was once used in the orbital maneuvering system (OMS) and reaction control system (RCS) engines of NASA's Space Shuttle, which used MMH and MON-3 (a mixture of nitrogen tetroxide with approximately 3% nitric oxide)
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Space Station
A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting crewmembers, which is designed to remain in space (most commonly as an artificial satellite in low Earth orbit) for an extended period of time and for other spacecraft to dock. A space station is distinguished from other spacecraft used for human spaceflight by lack of major propulsion or landing systems. Instead, other vehicles transport people and cargo to and from the station. As of April 2018[update], two space stations are in Earth orbit: the International Space Station (operational and permanently inhabited), and China's Tiangong-2 (operational but not permanently inhabited)
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Skylab B
Skylab
Skylab
B was a proposed second US space station similar to Skylab
Skylab
that was planned to be launched by NASA
NASA
for different purposes,[1][2] mostly involving the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project, but was canceled due to lack of funding. Two Skylab
Skylab
modules were built in 1970 by McDonnell Douglas for the Skylab
Skylab
program, originally the Apollo Applications Program
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Apollo 14
Roosa, Shepard, Mitchell Apollo program← Apollo 13 Apollo 15 → Apollo 14
Apollo 14
was the eighth manned mission in the United States Apollo program, and the third to land on the Moon. It was the last of the "H missions," targeted landings with two-day stays on the Moon
Moon
with two lunar EVAs, or moonwalks. Commander Alan Shepard, Command Module Pilot Stuart Roosa, and Lunar Module Pilot Edgar Mitchell
Edgar Mitchell
launched on their nine-day mission on Sunday, January 31, 1971, at 4:03:02 p.m. EST. Liftoff was delayed forty minutes and two seconds, due to launch site weather restrictions, the first such delay in the Apollo program.[2] Shepard and Mitchell made their lunar landing on February 5 in the Fra Mauro formation - originally the target of the aborted Apollo 13 mission
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Apollo 15
1 in cislunar space Plus 4 on the lunar surfaceEVA duration39 minutes, 7 seconds Spacewalk
Spacewalk
to retrieve film cassettesStart of missionLaunch date July 26, 1971, 13:34:00.6 (1971-07-26UTC13:34Z) UTCRocket Saturn V
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Moon
The Moon
The Moon
is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth, being Earth's only permanent natural satellite. It is the fifth-largest natural satellite in the Solar System, and the largest among planetary satellites relative to the size of the planet that it orbits (its primary). Following Jupiter's satellite Io, the Moon
Moon
is the second-densest satellite in the Solar System
Solar System
among those whose densities are known. The Moon
The Moon
is thought to have formed about 4.51 billion years ago, not long after Earth
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Gemini 9A
(L-R) Stafford, Cernan Project Gemini← Gemini 8 Gemini 10 → Gemini 9A
Gemini 9A
(officially Gemini IX-A)[2] was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASA's Gemini program. It was the 7th manned Gemini flight, the 13th manned American flight and the 23rd spaceflight of all time (includes X-15
X-15
flights over 100 kilometers (62 mi)). The original crew for Gemini 9, command pilot Elliot See
Elliot See
and pilot Charles Bassett, were killed in a crash on February 28, 1966 while flying a T-38 jet trainer to the McDonnell Aircraft
McDonnell Aircraft
plant in St. Louis, Missouri
St. Louis, Missouri
to inspect their spacecraft. Their deaths promoted the backup crew, Thomas P. Stafford and Eugene Cernan, to the prime crew
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Gimbaled Thrust
Gimbaled thrust
Gimbaled thrust
is the system of thrust vectoring used in most rockets, including the Space Shuttle, the Saturn V
Saturn V
lunar rockets, and the Falcon 9. Operation[edit] In a gimbaled thrust system, the exhaust nozzle of the rocket can be swiveled from side to side. As the nozzle is moved, the direction of the thrust is changed relative to the center of gravity of the rocket. The diagram illustrates three cases. The middle rocket shows the straight-line flight configuration in which the direction of thrust is along the center line of the rocket and through the center of gravity of the rocket. On the rocket at the left, the nozzle has been deflected to the left and the thrust line is now inclined to the rocket center line at an angle called the gimbal angle. Since the thrust no longer passes through the center of gravity, a torque is generated about the center of gravity and the nose of the rocket turns to the left
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I-65
Interstate 65 (I-65) is a major Interstate Highway in the central United States. As with most interstates that end in a five, it is a major cross-country, north-south route, connecting the Gulf of Mexico to the Great Lakes. Its southern terminus is located at an interchange with I-10 in Mobile, Alabama, and its northern terminus is at an interchange with I-90, U.S. Route 12 (US 12), and US 20 (the Dunes Highway) in Gary, Indiana, just southeast of Chicago. I-65 connects several major metropolitan areas in the Midwest and Southern United States. It connects the four largest cities in Alabama: Mobile, Montgomery, Birmingham, and Huntsville
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U.S. Space & Rocket Center
The U.S. Space & Rocket
Rocket
Center in Huntsville, Alabama
Huntsville, Alabama
is a museum operated by the government of Alabama, showcasing rockets, achievements, and artifacts of the U.S. space program
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Huntsville, Alabama
Huntsville is a city located primarily in Madison County in the Appalachian region of northern Alabama.[8] Huntsville is the county seat of Madison County.[9] The city extends west into neighboring Limestone
Limestone
County[10] and south into Morgan County.[citation needed] Huntsville's population was 180,105 as of the 2010 census.[11] Huntsville is the third-largest city in Alabama
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Alabama
As of 2010[1]English 95.1% Spanish 3.1%Demonym Alabamian[2]Capital MontgomeryLargest city BirminghamLargest metro Birmingham metropolitan areaArea Ranked 30th • Total 52,419 sq mi (135,765 km2) • Width 190 miles (305 km) • Length 330 miles (531 km) • % water 3.20 • Latitude 30° 11′ N to 35° N • Longitude 84° 53′ W to 88° 28′ WPopulation Ranked 24th • Total 4,863,300 (2016 est.)[3] • Density 94.7 (2011 est.)/sq mi  (36.5 (2011 est.)/km2) Ranked 27th • Median household income $44,509[4] (47th)Elevation • Highest point Mount Cheaha[5][6][7] 2,413 ft (735.5 m) • Mean 500 ft  (150 m) • Lowest point Gulf of Mexico[6] Sea levelBefore statehood
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