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Ryūkyū Kingdom
The Ryukyu Kingdom
Ryukyu Kingdom
(Okinawan: 琉球國 Ruuchuu-kuku; Japanese: 琉球王国 Ryūkyū Ōkoku; Middle Chinese: Ljuw-gjuw kwok; historical English name: Lewchew, Luchu, and Loochoo) was an independent kingdom that ruled most of the Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands
from the 15th to the 19th century.[note 1] The kings of Ryukyu unified Okinawa Island and extended the kingdom to the Amami Islands
Amami Islands
in modern-day Kagoshima Prefecture, and the Sakishima Islands
Sakishima Islands
near Taiwan
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Tribute
A tribute (/ˈtrɪbjuːt/)[1] (from Latin
Latin
tributum, contribution) is wealth, often in kind, that a party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance. Various ancient states exacted tribute from the rulers of land which the state conquered or otherwise threatened to conquer. In case of alliances, lesser parties may pay tribute to more powerful parties as a sign of allegiance and often in order to finance projects that benefited both parties
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Amami Islands
The Amami Islands
Amami Islands
(奄美群島, Amami-guntō)[1] is an archipelago in the Satsunan Islands, which is part of the Ryukyu Islands, and is southwest of Kyushu. Administratively, the group belongs to Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. The Geospatial Information Authority of Japan
Japan
and the Japan
Japan
Coast Guard agreed on February 15, 2010, to use the name of Amami-guntō (奄美群島) for the Amami Islands
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Ryukyuan Mon
The Ryukyuan mon
Ryukyuan mon
(琉球文, Ryūkyū mon, Okinawan: Ruuchuu mun) was the currency of the Ryukyu Kingdom
Ryukyu Kingdom
from 1454 to 1879, when the kingdom was annexed by the Empire of Japan
Japan
and the currency was replaced by the Japanese yen. The Chinese character
Chinese character
for mon is 文, which was widely used in the Chinese-character cultural sphere, e.g. Chinese wén, Vietnamese văn, and Korean mun. The Ryukyuans produced their own coins until the 15th century, but became dependent on Chinese coins until the 19th century when they briefly minted their own coins again. From 1862 the minting was outsourced to Kagoshima City, Satsuma Domain and were based on the Japanese mon (specifically on the "Kan'ei Tsūhō" copper coins)
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Cash (Chinese Coin)
Cash was a type of coin of China
China
and East Asia, used from the 4th century BC until the 20th century AD. Originally cast during the Warring States
Warring States
period, these coins continued to be used for the entirety of Imperial China
China
as well as under Mongol, and Manchu rule. The last Chinese cash coins were cast in the first year of the Republic of China. Generally most cash coins were made from copper or bronze alloys, with iron, lead, and zinc coins occasionally used less often throughout Chinese history. Rare silver and gold cash coins were also produced. During most of their production, cash coins were cast but, during the late Qing dynasty, machine-struck cash coins began to be made. In the modern era, these coins are considered to be Chinese “good luck coins”; they are hung on strings and round the necks of children, or over the beds of sick people
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Japanese Mon (currency)
The mon (文) was the currency of Japan
Japan
from the Muromachi period
Muromachi period
in 1336, until the early Meiji period
Meiji period
in 1870. It co-circulated with the new sen until 1891. The Kanji
Kanji
for mon is 文 and the character for currency was widely used in the Chinese-character cultural sphere, e.g. Chinese wen, Korean mun. Throughout Japanese history, there were many different styles of currency of many shapes, styles, designs, sizes and materials, including gold, silver, bronze, etc. Coins denominated in mon were cast in copper or iron and circulated alongside silver and gold ingots denominated in shu, bu and ryō, with 4000 mon = 16 shu = 4 bu = 1 ryo. In 1869, due to depreciation against gold, the new fixing officially was set for 1 ryo/yen = equal to 10.000 mon
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Ryukyu Domain
The Ryukyu Domain
Ryukyu Domain
(琉球藩, Ryūkyū han) was a short-lived domain of Japan, lasting from 1872 to 1879, before becoming the current Okinawa Prefecture
Okinawa Prefecture
and other islands[citation needed] at the Pacific edge of the East China Sea. When the domain was created in 1872, Japan's feudal han system had developed in unique ways
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Japan
Coordinates: 35°N 136°E / 35°N 136°E / 35; 136Japan 日本国 Nippon-koku or Nihon-kokuFlagImperial SealAnthem: "Kimigayo" 君が代"His Imperial Majesty's Reign"[2][3] Government
Government
Seal of JapanGo-Shichi no Kiri (五七桐)Area controlled by Japan
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Japanese Language
Japanese (日本語, Nihongo, [ɲihoŋɡo] or [ɲihoŋŋo] ( listen)) is an East Asian language spoken by about 126 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language. It is a member of the Japonic (or Japanese-Ryukyuan) language family, and its relation to other languages, such as Korean, is debated. Japanese has been grouped with language families such as Ainu, Austroasiatic, and the now-discredited Altaic, but none of these proposals has gained widespread acceptance. Little is known of the language's prehistory, or when it first appeared in Japan. Chinese documents from the 3rd century recorded a few Japanese words, but substantial texts did not appear until the 8th century. During the Heian period
Heian period
(794–1185), Chinese had considerable influence on the vocabulary and phonology of Old Japanese
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Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
(formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese recorded in the Qieyun, a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions. The Swedish linguist Bernard Karlgren believed that the dictionaries recorded a speech standard of the capital Chang'an
Chang'an
of the Sui and Tang dynasties. However, based on the more recently recovered preface of the Qieyun, most scholars now believe that it records a compromise between northern and southern reading and poetic traditions from the late Northern and Southern dynasties period. This composite system contains important information for the reconstruction of the preceding system of Old Chinese phonology (1st millennium BC). The fanqie method used to indicate pronunciation in these dictionaries, though an improvement on earlier methods, proved awkward in practice
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Kagoshima Prefecture
Kagoshima
Kagoshima
Prefecture (鹿児島県, Kagoshima-ken) is a prefecture of Japan
Japan
located on the island of Kyushu.[1] The capital is the city of Kagoshima.[2]Contents1 History 2 Geography 3 Economy 4 Region4.1 Cities 4.2 Districts 4.3 Mergers5 Sport and r
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Regent
A regent (from the Latin
Latin
regens,[1] "[one] ruling"[2]) is "a person appointed to administer a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated."[3] The rule of a regent or regents is called a regency. A regent or regency council may be formed ad hoc or in accordance with a constitutional rule. "Regent" is sometimes a formal title. If the regent is holding his position due to his position in the line of succession, the compound term prince regent is often used; if the regent of a minor is his mother, she is often referred to as "queen regent". If the formally appointed regent is unavailable or cannot serve on a temporary basis, a Regent
Regent
ad interim may be appointed to fill the gap. In a monarchy, a regent usually governs due to one of these reasons, but may also be elected to rule during the interregnum when the royal line has died out
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Sakishima Islands
The Sakishima Islands
Sakishima Islands
(先島諸島, Sakishima-shotō) (or 先島群島, Sakishima-guntō) (Okinawan: Sachishima) are an archipelago located at the southernmost end of the Japanese Archipelago. They are part of the Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands
and include the Miyako Islands
Miyako Islands
and the Yaeyama Islands
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Taiwan
Taiwan
Taiwan
(/ˌtaɪˈwɑːn/ ( listen)), officially the Republic of China
China
(ROC), is a state in East Asia.[15][16][17] Its neighbors include the People's Republic of China
China
(PRC) to the west, Japan
Japan
to the northeast, and the Philippines
Philippines
to the south. It is the most populous state and largest economy that is not a member of the United Nations. The island of Taiwan, formerly known as Formosa, was inhabited by aborigines before the 17th century, when Dutch and Spanish colonies opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed by the Qing dynasty, the last dynasty of China. The Qing ceded Taiwan
Taiwan
to Japan
Japan
in 1895 after the Sino-Japanese War
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Maritime History
Maritime history
Maritime history
is the study of human interaction with and activity at sea. It covers a broad thematic element of history that often uses a global approach, although national and regional histories remain predominant
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East Asia
East Asia
Asia
or Northeast Asia
Northeast Asia
is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical[3] or pan-ethno-cultural[4] terms.[5][6] Geographically and geopolitically, the region constitutes Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan.[7][8][9][10][11][3][12][13][14][15] The region was the cradle of various ancient civilizations such as Ancient China, ancient Japan, ancient Korea, and the Mongol Empire.[16][17] East Asia
Asia
was one of the cradles of world civilization, with China, an ancient East Asian civilization being one of the earliest cradles of civilization in human history
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