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Ruthenes
Ruthenians
Ruthenians
and Ruthenes are Latin
Latin
exonyms which were used in Western Europe for the ancestors of modern East Slavic peoples, Rus' people with Ruthenian Greek Catholic
Greek Catholic
religious background.[1] Along with Lithuanians
Lithuanians
and Samogitians, Ruthenians
Ruthenians
constituted the main population of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which at its fullest extent was called the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Ruthenia
Ruthenia
and Samogitia (Ruthenian: Великое князство Литовское, Руское, Жомойтское и иных).[2] From the 9th century, the "land of the Rus'", known later as Kievan Rus', was known in Western Europe by a variety of names derived from Rus'
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Ruthenian Language
Ruthenian or Old Ruthenian (see other names) was the group of varieties of Eastern Slavonic spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later in the East Slavic territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The written form is also called Chancery Slavonic by Lithuanian linguists.[3] Scholars do not agree whether Ruthenian was a separate language, or a Western dialect or set of dialects of Old East Slavic, but it is agreed that Ruthenian has a close genetic relationship with it. Old East Slavic was the colloquial language used in Kievan Rus' (10th–13th centuries).[4] Ruthenian is seen as a predecessor of modern Belarusian, Rusyn and Ukrainian
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Bukovina
Bukovina
Bukovina
(Romanian: Bucovina; German: Bukowina/Buchenland; Polish: Bukowina; Hungarian: Bukovina, Ukrainian: Буковина Bukovyna; see also other languages) is a historical region in Central Europe,[1][2] divided between Romania
Romania
and Ukraine, located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains. A region of Moldavia
Moldavia
during the Middle Ages, the territory of what became known as Bukovina
Bukovina
was, from 1774 to 1918, an administrative division of the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire, and Austria-Hungary. After World War I, Romania
Romania
established its control over Bukovina
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Latinisation Of Names
Latinisation (also spelled Latinization[1]: see spelling differences) is the practice of rendering a non- Latin
Latin
name (or word) in a Latin style.[1] It is commonly found with historical personal names, with toponyms and in the standard binomial nomenclature of the life sciences. It goes further than romanisation, which is the transliteration of a word to the Latin
Latin
alphabet from another script (e.g. Cyrillic). This was often done in the classical to emulate Latin
Latin
authors, or to present a more impressive image. In a scientific context, the main purpose of Latinisation may be to produce a name which is internationally consistent. Latinisation may be carried out by:transforming the name into Latin
Latin
sounds (e.g. Geber for Jabir), or adding Latinate suffixes to the end of a name (e.g
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Odoacer
Flavius Odoacer
Odoacer
(/ˌɒdəˈeɪsər/; c. 433[1] – 493 AD), also known as Flavius Odovacer or Odovacar[2] (Italian: Odoacre, Latin: Odoacer, Odoacar, Odovacar, Odovacris),[1] was a soldier who in 476 became the first King of Italy
King of Italy
(476–493). His reign is commonly seen as marking the end of the Western Roman Empire.[3] Though the real power in Italy
Italy
was in his hands, he represented himself as the client of the emperor in Constantinople. Odoacer generally used the Roman honorific patrician, granted by the emperor Zeno, but is referred to as a king (Latin: rex) in many documents. He himself used it in the only surviving official document that emanated from his chancery, and it was also used by the consul Basilius.[1][4] Odoacer
Odoacer
introduced few important changes into the administrative system of Italy
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Ruteni
The Ruteni
Ruteni
("The blond ones") were a tribe of Gaul.[1] They were located in the modern region of Aveyron,[2] and were known as producers of lead.[3] But the area was inhabited previously to this, boasting many prehistoric ruins including over 1,000 Dolmens - more than any other department in France. Notes[edit]^ An historical geography of France by Xavier de Planhol, Paul Claval p.10 [1] ^ Sivan, H., R. Mathisen, R. Talbert, S. Gillies, T. Elliott, J. Becker. "Places: 138546 (Ruteni)". Pleiades
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Ancient Gaul
Gaul
Gaul
(Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe
Western Europe
during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Germany
Germany
on the west bank of the Rhine. It covered an area of 494,000 km2 (191,000 sq mi).[1] According to the testimony of Julius Caesar, Gaul
Gaul
was divided into three parts: Gallia Celtica, Belgica and Aquitania
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Boris Unbegaun
Boris Ottokar Unbegaun (Russian: Бори́с Ге́нрихович Унбега́ун, Б.-О. Унбегаун) (1898-1973) was a Russia-born German linguist and philologist, expert in Slavic studies: Slavic languages and literature. He worked in universities of France, Great Britain and the United States.[1][2][3] Major works[edit]La langue russe au XVIe siècle (1500—1550). — Paris: Inst. d'Études Slaves de l’Univ. de Paris, 1935. Les débuts de la langue littéraire chez les Serbes. — Paris: Champion, 1935. Grammaire russe. — Lyon-Paris, IAC, 1951 (English translation: Russian grammar. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957; German translation: Russische Grammatik. — Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1969) L’Origine du nom des Ruthènes. — Winnipeg: Acad. ukrainienne libre des sciences, 1953. A bibliographical guide to the Russian language. — Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1953. Russian versification
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Partition Of Poland
The Partitions of Poland[nb 1] were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place towards the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years. The partitions were conducted by Habsburg Austria, the Kingdom of Prussia, and the Russian Empire, which divided up the Commonwealth lands among themselves progressively in the process of territorial seizures and annexations.[1][2][3][4] The First Partition of Poland was decided on August 5, 1772. Two decades later, Russian and Prussian troops entered the Commonwealth again and the Second Partition was signed on January 23, 1793. Austria did not participate in the Second Partition. The Third Partition of Poland took place on October 24, 1795, in reaction to the unsuccessful Polish Kościuszko Uprising the previous year
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Vasili III Of Russia
Vasili III Ivanovich (Russian: Василий III Иванович, also Basil; 26 March 1479 – 3 December 1533, Moscow) was the Grand Prince of Moscow
Moscow
from 1505 to 1533. He was the son of Ivan III Vasiliyevich and Sophia Paleologue
Sophia Paleologue
and was christened with the name Gavriil (Гавриил). He had three brothers: Yuri, born in 1480, Simeon, born in 1487 and Andrei, born in 1490, as well as five sisters: Elena (born and died in 1474), Feodosiya (born and died in 1475), another Elena (born 1476), another Feodosiya (born 1485) and Eudoxia (born 1492).[1]Contents1 Foreign affairs 2 Domestic affairs 3 Family life 4 Death 5 Ancestry 6 See also 7 ReferencesForeign affairs[edit]Map of Russia (Moscovia) published by Sigismund von Herberstein in 1549Vasili III continued the policies of his father Ivan III and spent most of his reign consolidating Ivan's gains
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Grand Duchy Of Moscow
The Grand Duchy or Grand Principality
Principality
of Moscow
Moscow
(Russian: Великое Княжество Московское, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye), also known in English simply as Muscovy from the Latin: Moscovia, was a late medieval Rus' principality centered on Moscow
Moscow
and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia. The state originated with Daniel I, who inherited Moscow
Moscow
in 1283, eclipsing and eventually absorbing its parent duchy of Vladimir-Suzdal by the 1320s
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Jacques Margeret
Jacques Margeret (ca. 1565–1619) was a French mercenary captain who, in 1607, wrote the first printed French travel account of Muscovy, entitled, "Estate de l’Empire de Russie et de Grand Duché de Moscovie".Contents1 Birth and early life in France 2 Mercenary service 3 Mercenary service in Russia 4 Return to France - Printing of his book 5 Further Mercenary Service 6 ReferencesBirth and early life in France[edit] A member of one of the oldest families of Auxonne, located on the border between Burgundy and Franche-Comté, Margeret was probably born ca 1565. He grew up in the turbulent period known as the French Wars of Religion, in a Protestant family. Becoming a soldier, he fought for the Protestant King Henri IV of France against the Catholic League, serving the king until Henri’s conversion to Catholicism in 1593. Mercenary service[edit] After leaving Henri’s service Margeret joined the crusade against the Turks in south east Europe
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Kingdom Of Galicia And Lodomeria
The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, also known as Galicia or Austrian Poland, became a crownland of the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
as a result of the First Partition of Poland
First Partition of Poland
in 1772, when it became a Kingdom under Habsburg rule. From 1804 to 1918, it was a crownland of the Austrian Empire. After the reforms of 1867, it became an ethnic Pole-administered autonomous unit under the Austrian crown. The country was carved from the entire south-western part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Among the many ceremonial titles of the princes of Hungary
Hungary
was "ruler of Galicia and Lodomeria". The name "Galicia" is the Latinized form of Halych, a principality of the medieval Ruthenia
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Carpathian Ruthenia
Carpathian Ruthenia, Carpatho-Ukraine
Carpatho-Ukraine
or Zakarpattia[A 1] (Rusyn and Ukrainian: Карпатська Русь, Karpats'ka Rus' or Закарпаття, Zakarpattja; Slovak and Czech: Podkarpatská Rus; Hungarian: Kárpátalja; Romanian: Transcarpatia; Polish: Zakarpacie; German: Karpatenukraine) is a historic region in the border between Central and Eastern Europe, mostly located in western Ukraine's Zakarpattia
Zakarpattia
Oblast, with smaller parts in easternmost Slovakia
Slovakia
(largely in Prešov
Prešov
Region and Košice
Košice
Region) and Poland's Lemkovyna. Before World War I
World War I
most of this region was part of the Kingdom of Hungary. In the interwar period, it was part of the First and Second Czechoslovak Republic
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Belarus
Coordinates: 53°N 23°E / 53°N 23°E / 53; 23 Republic
Republic
of Belarus Рэспубліка Беларусь (Belarusian) Республика Беларусь (Russian)FlagNational emblemAnthem: Дзяржаўны гімн Рэспублікі Беларусь (Belarusian) Dziaržaŭny himn Respubliki Bielaruś (English: State Anthem of Belarus)Location of  Belarus  (green) in Europe  (dark grey)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Minsk 53°55′N 27°33′E / 53.917°N 27.550°E / 53.917; 27.550Off
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Early Modern Era
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era. Although the chronological limits of the period are open to debate, the timeframe spans the period after the late portion of the post-classical age (c. 1500), known as the Middle Ages, through the beginning of the Age of Revolutions (c
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