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Russula Prolifica
Russula
Russula
prolifica is a species of edible mushroom found in Madagascar. It is found under Eucalyptus robusta
Eucalyptus robusta
plantations there and has only become abundant in the past seventy years or so.[1] See also[edit] List of Russula
Russula
species References[edit]^ Buyck, Bart (2008). "The Edible Mushrooms of Madagascar: An Evolving Enigma". Economic Botany. 62 (3): 509–20. doi:10.1007/s12231-008-9029-4. Taxon identifiersWd: Q7382374 EoL: 29302334 Fungorum: 587846 MycoBank: 587846 NCBI: 1822448This Russulales-related article is a stub
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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MycoBank
MycoBank is an online database, documenting new mycological names and combinations, eventually combined with descriptions and illustrations. It is run by the Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures fungal biodiversity center in Utrecht.[1] Each novelty, after being screened by nomenclatural experts and found in accordance with the ICN (International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants), is allocated a unique MycoBank number before the new name has been validly published. This number then can be cited by the naming author in the publication where the new name is being introduced
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Basidiomycota
Basidiomycota
Basidiomycota
(/bəˌsɪdi.oʊmaɪˈkoʊtə/[2]) is one of two large divisions that, together with the Ascomycota, constitute the subkingdom Dikarya
Dikarya
(often referred to as the "higher fungi") within the kingdom Fungi. More specifically the Basidiomycota
Basidiomycota
include these groups: mushrooms, puffballs, stinkhorns, bracket fungi, other polypores, jelly fungi, boletes, chanterelles, earth stars, smuts, bunts, rusts, mirror yeasts, and the human pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus. Basidiomycota
Basidiomycota
are filamentous fungi composed of hyphae (except for basidiomycota-yeast; refer yeast for more information) and reproduce sexually via the formation of specialized club-shaped end cells called basidia that normally bear external meiospores (usually four). These specialized spores are called basidiospores
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Agaricomycetes
Agaricomycetidae Agaricales
Agaricales
(32 fam., 410+ gen.) Amylocorticiales
Amylocorticiales
(1 fam., 14 gen.)
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Russulales
Albatrellaceae Amylostereaceae Auriscalpiaceae Bondarzewiaceae Echinodontiaceae Hericiaceae Hybogasteraceae Lachnocladiaceae Peniophoraceae Russulaceae Gloeocystidiellaceae StereaceaeSynonyms[1]Aleurodiscales Jülich (1981) Bondarzewiales Jülich (1981) Hericiales Jülich (1981) Lachnocladiales Jülich (1981) Peniophorales Boidin, Mugnier & Canales (1998) Russulales
Russulales
Kreisel (1969) nom. inval. Stereales Jülich (1981)The Russulales
Russulales
are an order of the Agaricomycetes, (which include the agaric genera Russula
Russula
and Lactarius
Lactarius
and their polyporoid and corticioid relatives)
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Russulaceae
Boidinia Gloeopeniophorella Lactarius1 Lactifluus Multifurca Pseudoxenasma Russula2 1including Arcangeliella, Gastrolactarius, and Zelleromyces 2including Cystangium, Gymnomyces, Elasmomyces, Martellia, and MacowanitesSynonyms[2][3]Asterosporaceae Moreau (1954) (nom. illeg.) Elasmomycetaceae Locq. ex Pegler & T.W.K.Young (1979) Lactariaceae Gäumann (1926)The Russulaceae
Russulaceae
are a diverse family of fungi in the order Russulales, with roughly 1,900 known species and a worldwide distribution. They comprise the brittlegills and the milk-caps, well-known mushroom-forming fungi that include some edible species. These gilled mushrooms are characterised by the brittle flesh of their fruitbodies. In addition to these typical agaricoid forms, the family contains species with fruitbodies that are laterally stiped (pleurotoid), closed (secotioid or gasteroid), or crust-like (corticioid)
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
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Binomial Nomenclature
Binomial nomenclature
Binomial nomenclature
("two-term naming system") also called binominal nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin
Latin
grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomial name (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name; more informally it is also called a Latin
Latin
name. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus Homo
Homo
and within this genus to the species Homo
Homo
sapiens
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Edible Mushroom
Edible mushrooms are the fleshy and edible fruit bodies of several species of macrofungi (fungi which bear fruiting structures that are large enough to be seen with the naked eye). They can appear either below ground (hypogeous) or above ground (epigeous) where they may be picked by hand.[1] Edibility may be defined by criteria that include absence of poisonous effects on humans and desirable taste and aroma.[2][3] Edible mushrooms are consumed for their nutritional value and they are occasionally consumed for their supposed medicinal value. Mushrooms consumed by those practicing folk medicine are known as medicinal mushrooms.[4] While psychedelic mushrooms are occasionally consumed for recreational or entheogenic purposes, they can produce strong psychological effects, and are therefore not commonly used as food.[5] Edible mushrooms include many fungal species that are either harvested wild or cultivated
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Fungi
Dikarya
Dikarya
(inc. Deuteromycota)AscomycotaPezizomycotina Saccharomycotina TaphrinomycotinaBasidiomycotaAgaricomycotina Pucciniomycotina UstilaginomycotinaSubphyla incertae sedisEntomophthoromycotina Kickxellomycotina Mucoromycotina ZoopagomycotinaA fungus (plural: fungi[3] or funguses[4]) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants and animals. A characteristic that places fungi in a different kingdom from plants, bacteria, and some protists is chitin in their cell walls. Similar to animals, fungi are heterotrophs; they acquire their food by absorbing dissolved molecules, typically by secreting digestive enzymes into their environment. Fungi do not photosynthesise
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National Center For Biotechnology Information
The National Center for Biotechnology
Biotechnology
Information (NCBI) is part of the United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
(NIH). The NCBI is located in Bethesda, Maryland and was founded in 1988 through legislation sponsored by Senator Claude Pepper. The NCBI houses a series of databases relevant to biotechnology and biomedicine and is an important resource for bioinformatics tools and services. Major databases include GenBank
GenBank
for DNA
DNA
sequences and PubMed, a bibliographic database for the biomedical literature. Other databases include the NCBI Epigenomics database
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Wikidata
Wikidata
Wikidata
is a collaboratively edited knowledge base hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. It is intended to provide a common source of data which can be used by Wikimedia projects such as,[4][5] and by anyone else, under a public domain license. This is similar to the way Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
provides storage for media files and access to those files for all Wikimedia projects, and which are also freely available for reuse. Wikidata
Wikidata
is powered by the software Wikibase.[6]Contents1 Concepts 2 Development history2.1 Phase 1 2.2 Phase 2 2.3 Phase 33 Reception 4 Logo 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksConcepts[edit]ScreenshotsThree statements from Wikidata's item on the planet Mars
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Encyclopedia Of Life
The Encyclopedia of Life
Life
(EOL) is a free, online collaborative encyclopedia intended to document all of the 1.9 million living species known to science. It is compiled from existing databases and from contributions by experts and non-experts throughout the world.[2] It aims to build one "infinitely expandable" page for each species, including video, sound, images, graphics, as well as text.[3] In addition, the Encyclopedia incorporates content from the Biodiversity Heritage Library, which digitizes millions of pages of printed literature from the world's major natural history libraries. The project was initially backed by a US$50 million funding commitment, led by the MacArthur Foundation
MacArthur Foundation
and the Sloan Foundation, who provided US$20 million and US$5 million, respectively
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Index Fungorum
Index Fungorum is an international project to index all formal names (scientific names) in the Fungus
Fungus
Kingdom. As of 2015 the project is based at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, one of three partners along with Landcare Research and the Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It is somewhat comparable to the International Plant Names Index (IPNI), in which the Royal Botanic Gardens is also involved. A difference is that where IPNI does not indicate correct names, the Index Fungorum does indicate the status of a name. In the returns from the search page a currently correct name is indicated in green, while others are in blue (a few, aberrant usages of names are indicated in red)
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