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Russian Conquest Of The Caucasus
This article concerns the expansion of Russia
Russia
into the region between the Black and Caspian Seas, mainly between 1800 and 1864. The main events were: * The annexation of eastern Georgia south of the mountains in 1800 * A series of wars against Turkey, Persia and local rulers to expand and consolidate this bridgehead. * The long and bloody Caucasus War to gain control of the intervening mountains * and, in the north, the replacement of steppe nomads with Russian peasantsThe southern and eastern area has been well documented by Baddeley, whose hundred-year-old book remains unsurpassed. There appears to be no full account of the western and northern area in any language. All dates in this article use the old Russian calendar . For the Western calendar add 12 days for the nineteenth century and 11 days for the eighteenth century
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Kars
KARS (Armenian : Կարս, less commonly Ղարս Ghars, ) is a city in northeast Turkey
Turkey
and the capital of Kars Province
Kars Province
. With a population of 73,836 (in 2011), it is the largest city on the Turkish side of the closed border with Armenia
Armenia
. For a brief period of time, it served as the capital of the medieval Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia
Armenia
. Its significance increased in the 19th century, when Kars was contested between the Ottoman and Russian empires, with the latter gaining control of the city as a result of the 1877-78 war . During World War I
World War I
, the Ottomans took control of the city in 1918 and declared the Provisional National Government of the Southwestern Caucasus , but were forced to relinquish it to the First Republic of Armenia
Armenia
following the Armistice of Mudros
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Akhaltsikhe
AKHALTSIKHE (Georgian : ახალციხე , literally "new castle"; formerly known as LOMISA) is a small city in Georgia 's southwestern region (mkhare ) of Samtskhe-Javakheti
Samtskhe-Javakheti
. It is situated on the both banks of a small river Potskhovi , which separates the city to the old city in the north and new in the south. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Population * 3 Climate * 4 International relations * 4.1 Twin towns and sister cities
Twin towns and sister cities
* 5 People associated with Akhaltsikhe
Akhaltsikhe
* 6 Archaeology * 6.1 Amiranis Gora * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links HISTORY Akhaltsikhe
Akhaltsikhe
c. 1887 The city is first mentioned in the chronicles in the 12th century
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Akhalkalaki
AKHALKALAKI (Georgian : ახალქალაქი , for New City (from Georgian meaning "new" and meaning "city" or "town"); Armenian : Ախալքալաք; Turkish : Ahılkelek) is a town in Georgia 's southern region of Samtskhe-Javakheti
Samtskhe-Javakheti
. Akhalkalaki
Akhalkalaki
lies on the edge of the Javakheti Volcanic Plateau . The city is located about 30 km from the border with Turkey
Turkey
. In 2002 over 90 percent of the city's population were ethnic Armenians
Armenians
. The city was passed from Ottomans
Ottomans
to Russians
Russians
after Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829)
Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829)
. On January 4, 1900, an earthquake destroyed much of the town and killed 1,000 people in the area. As of the 2014 census the town had a population of 8,295
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Old Style And New Style Dates
OLD STYLE (O.S.) and NEW STYLE (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written. There were two calendar changes in Great Britain and its colonies, which may sometimes complicate matters: the first change was to change the start of the year from Lady Day (25 March) to 1 January; the second was to discard the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
in favour of the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
. Closely related is the custom of dual dating , where writers gave two consecutive years to reflect differences in the starting date of the year, or to include both the Julian and Gregorian dates. Beginning in 1582, the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
replaced the Julian in Roman Catholic countries
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Ajaria
ADJARA (Georgian : აჭარა ( listen )), officially known as the AUTONOMOUS REPUBLIC OF ADJARA (Georgian : აჭარის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა ( listen )), is a historical, geographic and political-administrative region of Georgia . Located in the country's southwestern corner, Adjara
Adjara
lies on the coast of the Black Sea
Black Sea
near the foot of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains
Caucasus Mountains
, north of Turkey
Turkey
. It is an important tourism destination and includes Georgia's second-largest city of Batumi
Batumi
as its capital. About 350,000 people live on its 2,880 km2
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Abkhazia
(orange) and Georgia proper and South Ossetia (grey)
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Kingdom Of Imereti
The KINGDOM OF IMERETI (Georgian : იმერეთის სამეფო) was a Georgian monarchy established in 1455 by a member of the house of Bagrationi when the Kingdom of Georgia was dissolved into rival kingdoms. Before that time, Imereti was considered a separate kingdom within the Kingdom of Georgia, to which a cadet branch of the Bagration royal family held the crown beginning in 1260 by David VI
David VI
after he revolted against the Mongolian rule and fled to Abkhazia. This was due to the Mongolian conquest of the 13th century which decentralized and fragmented Georgia, forcing the relocation of governmental centers to the provinces. Imereti was conquered by Giorgi the Brilliant, who was subject to the Mongols, and united with the east Kingdom of Georgia
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Mingrelia
SAMEGRELO (Georgian : სამეგრელო Samegrelo; Mingrelian : სამარგალო Samargalo; Laz : მარგალონა Margalona, Middle Persian : Segān ) is a historic province in the western part of Georgia , formerly also known as ODISHI . In English it has also been historically known as Mingrelia, based on the Russian exonym rather than the Georgian endonym. It is inhabited by the Megrelians , an ethnic group of the South Caucasia . CONTENTS * 1 Geography and climate * 2 History * 3 See also * 4 References GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE Samegrelo
Samegrelo
is bordered by the secessionist region of Abkhazia
Abkhazia
to the north-west, Svaneti
Svaneti
to the north, Imereti
Imereti
to the east, Guria to the south and the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the west
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Guria
GURIA (Georgian : გურია) is a region (mkhare ) in Georgia , in the western part of the country, bordered by the eastern end of the Black Sea
Black Sea
. The region has a population of 113,000 (2016), with Ozurgeti as the regional capital. CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 History * 3 Origin of the name "Guria" * 4 Economy * 5 Demographics * 6 Notables * 7 See also * 8 References GEOGRAPHY Guria
Guria
is bordered by Samegrelo
Samegrelo
to the north-west, Imereti
Imereti
to the north, Samtskhe-Javakheti
Samtskhe-Javakheti
to the east, Ajaria
Ajaria
to the south, and the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the west. The province has an area of 2,033 km². Guria
Guria
is traversed by the northeasterly line of equal latitude and longitude
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Caspian Expeditions Of The Rus'
The CASPIAN EXPEDITIONS OF THE RUS\' were military raids undertaken by the Rus\' between 864 and 1041 on the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
shores, of what are nowadays Iran
Iran
, Dagestan
Dagestan
, and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
. Initially, the Rus' appeared in Serkland in the 9th century traveling as merchants along the Volga trade route
Volga trade route
, selling furs, honey, and slaves. The first small-scale raids took place in the late 9th and early 10th century. The Rus' undertook the first large-scale expedition in 913; having arrived on 500 ships, they pillaged in the Gorgan
Gorgan
region, in the territory of present-day Iran, and more to the west, in Gilan and Mazandaran , taking slaves and goods
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Tmutarakan
TMUTARAKAN or TMUTORAKAN was the name of a Mediaeval Kievan Rus' principality and trading town that controlled the Cimmerian Bosporus
Cimmerian Bosporus
, the passage from the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov
. Its site was the ancient Greek colony of HERMONASSA ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Ἑρμώνασσα), situated on the Taman peninsula
Taman peninsula
, in the present-day Krasnodar Krai
Krasnodar Krai
of Russia
Russia
, roughly opposite Kerch
Kerch

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Nadir Shah
KHORASAN CAMPAIGN * Mashhad
Mashhad
* Sangan * Sabzevar AFGHAN CAMPAIGNS * 1st Afghan Campaign * Kafer Qal\'eh * Herat
Herat
1729 * 2nd Afghan Campaign * Qandahar SAFAVID RESTORATION * Damghan * Khwar pass * Murche-Khort *
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Zand Dynasty
The ZAND DYNASTY (Persian : سلسله زندیه‎‎, Silsilah-i Zandīyah; listen (help ·info )) was an Iranian dynasty of Lak a branch of Lurs origin founded by Karim Khan Zand that initially ruled southern and central Iran
Iran
in the 18th century. It later quickly came to expand to include much of the rest of contemporary Iran, as well as Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
, and parts of Iraq
Iraq
and Armenia
Armenia
. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Karim Khan Zand * 1.2 Decline and fall * 2 Culture * 3 Legacy * 4 Rulers/kings * 5 Other notable members * 6 Family tree * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links HISTORYKARIM KHAN ZAND Contemporary portrait of Karim Khan Zand , the founder of dynasty (1751)
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Mozdok
MOZDOK (Russian : Моздо́к; Ossetian : Мæздæг, Mæzdæg) is a town and the administrative center of Mozdoksky District of the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania , Russia
Russia
, located on the left shore of the Terek River
Terek River
, 92 kilometers (57 mi) north of the republic's capital Vladikavkaz
Vladikavkaz
. As of the 2010 Census , its population was 38,768. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Administrative and municipal status * 4 Culture * 5 Ethnic groups * 6 Military * 7 References * 7.1 Notes * 7.2 Sources * 8 External links ETYMOLOGYThe town's name comes from the Kabardian word for "the dense forest". HISTORYIt was established in 1763 as a Russian fort at the site of a Kabardian village founded four years earlier, settling the families of the Volga Cossacks
Volga Cossacks
in stanitsas around it
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Darial Pass
The DARIAL GORGE (Georgian : დარიალის ხეობა, Darialis Kheoba; Russian : Дарьяльское ущелье; Ossetian : Арвыком, Arvykom; Ingush : Башлоам-Чу) is a river gorge on the border between Russia
Russia
and Georgia . It is at the east base of Mount Kazbek
Mount Kazbek
, south of present-day Vladikavkaz
Vladikavkaz
. The gorge was carved by the river Terek , and is approximately 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) long. The steep granite walls of the gorge can be as much as 1,800 metres (5,900 ft) tall in some places. CONTENTS * 1 In history * 2 Importance * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References IN HISTORYThe Darial originates from Dar-i Alān (در الان) meaning "Gate of the Alans" in Persian . The Alans
Alans
held the lands north of the pass in the first centuries AD
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