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Russian Conquest Of The Caucasus
The Russian conquest of the Caucasus
Russian conquest of the Caucasus
mainly occurred between 1800 and 1864. In that era the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
expanded to control the region between the Black Sea
Black Sea
and Caspian Sea, the territory that is modern Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and parts of Iran
Iran
and Turkey, as well as the North Caucasus
North Caucasus
region of modern Russia. Multiple wars were fought against the local rulers of the regions, as well as the dominant powers, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Persian Empire, for control
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Svaneti
Svaneti
Svaneti
or Svanetia (Suania in ancient sources) (Georgian: სვანეთი Svaneti) is a historic province in Georgia, in the northwestern part of the country. It is inhabited by the Svans, an ethnic subgroup of Georgians.Contents1 Geography1.1 Landscape 1.2 Climate2 History 3 Population 4 Culture and tourism 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksGeography[edit]Inguri RiverRioni RiverTskhenistsqali RiverRioni RiverTbilisiThe two valleys of Svaneti = Upper Svaneti
Svaneti
= Lower Svaneti = Kodori valley which also has a Svan populationSituated on the southern slopes of the central Caucasus Mountains
Caucasus Mountains
and surrounded by 3,000–5,000 meter peaks, Svaneti
Svaneti
is the highest inhabited area in the Caucasus. Four of the 10 highest peaks of the Caucasus
Caucasus
are located in the region
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Akhalkalaki
Akhalkalaki (Georgian: ახალქალაქი [ɑxɑlkʰɑlɑkʰi], for New City (from Georgian [ɑxɑli] meaning "new" and [kʰɑlɑkʰi] meaning "city" or "town"); Armenian: Ախալքալաք; Turkish: Ahılkelek) is a town in Georgia's southern region of Samtskhe-Javakheti. Akhalkalaki lies on the edge of the Javakheti Volcanic Plateau. The city is located about 30 km from the border with Turkey. In 2002 over 90 percent of the city's population were ethnic Armenians. The city was passed from Ottomans to Russians after Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829). On January 4, 1900, an earthquake destroyed much of the town and killed 1,000 people in the area.[2] As of the 2014 census the town had a population of 8,295.[1]Contents1 History 2 Population 3 Transport 4 Bases 5 Famous people 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit] Akhalkalaki was founded in 1064
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Mingrelia
Samegrelo
Samegrelo
(Georgian: სამეგრელო Samegrelo; Mingrelian: სამარგალო Samargalo; Laz: მარგალონა Margalona, Middle Persian: Segān‎[1]) is a historic province in the western part of Georgia, formerly also known as Odishi
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Guria
Guria (Georgian: გურია) is a region (mkhare) in Georgia, in the western part of the country, bordered by the eastern end of the Black Sea. The region has a population of 113,000 (2016),[1] with Ozurgeti as the regional capital.Contents1 Geography 2 Subdivisions 3 History 4 Origin of the name "Guria" 5 Economy 6 Demographics6.1 Ethnic & Religious groups 6.2 Gurians7 General Informations 8 Notables 9 See also 10 ReferencesGeography[edit]Relief map of GuriaGuria is bordered by Samegrelo to the north-west, Imereti to the north, Samtskhe-Javakheti to the east, Ajaria to the south, and the Black Sea to the west
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Mozdok, Republic Of North Ossetia-Alania
Mozdok (Russian: Моздо́к; Ossetian: Мæздæг, Mæzdæg) is a town and the administrative center of Mozdoksky District of the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania, Russia, located on the left shore of the Terek River, 92 kilometers (57 mi) north of the republic's capital Vladikavkaz. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 38,768.[3]Contents1 Etymology 2 History 3 Administrative and municipal status 4 Culture 5 Ethnic groups 6 Military 7 References7.1 Notes 7.2 Sources8 External linksEtymology[edit] The town's name comes from the Kabardian word for "the dense forest".[10] History[edit] It was established in 1763 as a Russian fort at the site of a Kabardian village founded four years earlier, settling the families of the Volga Cossacks in stanitsas around it.[5] Hundreds of Kabardians followed, fleeing their feudal lords from the neighboring areas into the Russian territory
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Abkhazia
Abkhazia
Abkhazia
(Abkhazian: Аҧсны́ Apsny [apʰsˈnɨ]; Georgian: აფხაზეთი Apkhazeti [ɑpʰxɑzɛtʰi]; Russian: Абха́зия, tr. Abkhа́ziya, IPA: [ɐpˈxazʲɪjə]) is a disputed territory on the eastern coast of the Black Sea, south of the Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
mountains, in northwestern Georgia. It covers 8,660 square kilometres (3,340 sq mi) and has a population of around 240,000. Its capital is Sukhumi
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Ajaria
Adjara (Georgian: აჭარა [at͡ʃʼara] ( listen)), officially known as the Autonomous Republic of Adjara (Georgian: აჭარის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა [at͡ʃʼaris avtʼɔnɔmiuri rɛspʼublikʼa] ( listen)), is a historical, geographic and political-administrative region of Georgia. Located in the country's southwestern corner, Adjara lies on the coast of the Black Sea near the foot of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains, north of Turkey. It is an important tourism destination and includes Georgia's second-largest city of Batumi as its capital. About 350,000 people live on its 2,880 km2. Adjara is home to the Adjarians, a regional subgroup of Georgians. Adjara's name can be spelled in a number of ways, including Ajara, Ajaria, Adjaria, Adzharia, Atchara and Achara, among others
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Kars
Kars
Kars
( Kurdish: Qers, Armenian: Կարս, less commonly known as Ղարս Ghars,[3]) is a city in northeast Turkey
Turkey
and the capital of Kars
Kars
Province. With a population of 73,836 (in 2011), it is the largest city on the Turkish side of the closed border with Armenia
Armenia
. For a brief period of time, it served as the capital of the medieval Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia.[4] Its significance increased in the 19th century, when Kars was contested between the Ottoman and Russian empires, with the latter gaining control of the city as a result of the 1877-78 war. During World War I, the Ottomans took control of the city in 1918 and declared the Provisional National Government of the Southwestern Caucasus, but were forced to relinquish it to the First Republic of Armenia
Armenia
following the Armistice of Mudros
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Akhaltsikhe
Akhaltsikhe
Akhaltsikhe
(Georgian: ახალციხე [ɑxɑltsʰixɛ], literally "new castle"; formerly known as Lomsia) is a small city in Georgia's southwestern region (mkhare) of Samtskhe-Javakheti. It is situated on the both banks of a small river Potskhovi, which separates the city to the old city in the north and new in the south.Contents1 History 2 Population 3 Climate 4 International relations4.1 Twin towns and sister cities5 People associated with Akhaltsikhe 6 Archaeology6.1 Amiranis Gora7 See also 8 References 9 External linksHistory[edit] Akhaltsikhe
Akhaltsikhe
c. 1887The city is first mentioned in the chronicles in the 12th century. In the 12th–13th centuries it was the seat of the Akhaltsikhelis, dukes of Samtskhe, whose two most illustrious representatives were Shalva and Ivane Akhaltsikheli (of Akhaltsikhe)
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Caspian Expeditions Of The Rus'
The Caspian expeditions of the Rus' were military raids undertaken by the Rus' between 864 and 1041 on the Caspian Sea shores,[1] of what are nowadays Iran, Dagestan, and Azerbaijan. Initially, the Rus' appeared in Serkland in the 9th century traveling as merchants along the Volga trade route, selling furs, honey, and slaves. The first small-scale raids took place in the late 9th and early 10th century. The Rus' undertook the first large-scale expedition in 913; having arrived on 500 ships, they pillaged in the Gorgan region, in the territory of present-day Iran, and more to the west, in Gilan and Mazandaran, taking slaves and goods. On their return, the northern raiders were attacked and defeated by the Khazars in the Volga Delta, and those who escaped were killed by the local tribes on the middle Volga. During their next expedition in 943, the Rus' captured Bardha'a, the capital of Arran, in the modern-day Republic of Azerbaijan
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Kingdom Of Kakheti
Kingdom
Kingdom
may refer to:Contents1 Monarchy 2 Taxonomy 3 Arts and media3.1 Television 3.2 Music 3.3 Other media4 People 5 Other 6 See alsoMonarchy[edit] Further information: List of kingdoms A type of monarchy:A realm ruled bya king a queen regnantTaxonomy[edit] Kingdom
Kingdom
(taxonomy), a category in biological taxonomyArts and media[edit] Television[edit] Kingdom
Kingdom
(UK TV series), a 2007 British television drama starring Stephen Fry Kingdom
Kingdom
(U.S
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Black Sea
The Black Sea
Black Sea
is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean
Ocean
between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.[1] It is supplied by a number of major rivers, such as the Danube, Dnieper, Southern Bug, Dniester, Don, and the Rioni
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Caspian Sea
The Caspian Sea
Sea
is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.[2][3] It is an endorheic basin (a basin without outflows) located between Europe
Europe
and Asia.[4] It is bounded by Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
to the northeast, Russia
Russia
to the northwest, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
to the west, Iran
Iran
to the south, and Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
to the southeast. The Caspian Sea
Sea
presently lies about 28 m (92 ft) below sea level in the Caspian Depression, to the east of the Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains and to the west of the vast steppe of Central Asia
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Armenia
Coordinates: 40°N 45°E / 40°N 45°E / 40; 45 Armenia
Armenia
(/ɑːrˈmiːniə/ ( listen);[20] Armenian: Հայաստան, translit. Hayastan, IPA: [hɑjɑsˈtɑn]), officially the Republic
Republic
of Armenia
Armenia
(Armenian: Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն, translit. Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun, IPA: [hɑjɑstɑˈni hɑnɾɑpɛtutʰˈjun]), is a country in the South Caucasus
South Caucasus
region of Eurasia
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Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(/ˌæzərbaɪˈdʒɑːn/ AZ-ər-by-JAHN; Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan [ɑzæɾbɑjˈd͡ʒɑn]), officially the Republic
Republic
of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Respublikası [ɑzæɾbɑjˈd͡ʒɑn ɾespublikɑˈsɯ]), is a country in the South Caucasus
Caucasus
region of Eurasia
Eurasia
at the crossroads of Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
and Western Asia.[7] It is bound by the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
to the east, Russia
Russia
to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia
Armenia
to the west and Iran
Iran
to the south
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