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Russian Grammar
Russian grammar
Russian grammar
employs an Indo-European inflexional structure, with considerable adaptation. Russian has a highly inflexional morphology, particularly in nominals (nouns, pronouns, adjectives and numerals). Russian literary syntax is a combination of a Church Slavonic
Church Slavonic
heritage, a variety of loaned and adopted constructs, and a standardized vernacular foundation. The spoken language has been influenced by the literary one, with some additional characteristic forms. Russian dialects
Russian dialects
show various non-standard grammatical features, some of which are archaisms or descendants of old forms discarded by the literary language. Note: In the discussion below, various terms are used in the meaning they have in standard Russian discussions of historical grammar
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Indo-European Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordi
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Substantivized
In linguistics, nominalization or nominalisation is the use of a word which is not a noun (e.g. a verb, an adjective or an adverb) as a noun, or as the head of a noun phrase, with or without morphological transformation. The term refers, for instance, to the process of producing a noun from another part of speech by adding a derivational affix (e.g., the noun legalization from the verb legalize).[1] Some languages simply allow verbs to be used as nouns without inflectional difference (conversion or zero derivation), while others require some form of morphological transformation. English has cases of both. Nominalization is a natural part of language, but some instances of it are more noticeable than others
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Dative
The dative case (abbreviated dat, or sometimes d when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobo potum dedit", Latin
Latin
for "Maria gave Jacob a drink". In these examples, the dative marks what would be considered the indirect object of a verb in English. Sometimes the dative has functions unrelated to giving. In Scottish Gaelic and Irish, the term dative case is used in traditional grammars to refer to the prepositional case-marking of nouns following simple prepositions and the definite article. In Georgian, the dative case also marks the subject of the sentence with some verbs and some tenses. This is called the dative construction. The dative was common among early Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
and has survived to the present in the Balto-Slavic branch and the Germanic branch, among others
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Article (grammar)
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation ART) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope. The articles in English grammar are the and a/an, and in certain contexts some. "An" and "a" are modern forms of the Old English "an", which in Anglian dialects
Anglian dialects
was the number "one" (compare "on" in Saxon dialects) and survived into Modern Scots
Modern Scots
as the number "owan"
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Animacy
Animacy is a grammatical and semantic principle expressed in language based on how sentient or alive the referent of a noun is. Widely expressed, animacy is one of the most elementary principles in languages around the globe, and is a distinction acquired as early as six months of age.[2] Concepts of animacy constantly vary beyond a simple animate and inanimate binary; many languages function off of a hierarchical General Animacy Scale that ranks animacy as a "matter of gradience."[3] Typically (with some variation of order and of where the cutoff for animacy occurs), the scale ranks humans above animals, then plants, natural forces, concrete objects, and abstract objects, in that order
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Russian Poetry
This is a list of authors who have written poetry in the Russian language. For the plain text list, see Category:Russian poets. See also: List of Russian-language writers, List of Russian-language novelists, List of Russian-language playwrights, List of Russian artists, List of Russian architects, List of Russian inventors, List of Russian explorers, Russian literature, Russian culture Alphabetical list[edit]ContentsA B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZA[edit]Portrait Person Notable worksBella Akhmadulina (1937–2010) The String The Garden A Guiding Sound Once in DecemberAnna Akhmatova (1889–1966) Evening Requiem The Rosary Poem Without a HeroMargarita Aliger (1915–1992) Zoya Railroad The Year of Birth Stones and GrassDaniil Andreev (1906–1959) Russian Gods The Iron MysteryInnokenty Annensky (1855–1909) Quiet Songs Cypress BoxPavel Antokolsky (1896–1978) All We Who in His NameAleksey A
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Metre (poetry)
In poetry, metre is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse or lines in verse. Many traditional verse forms prescribe a specific verse metre, or a certain set of metres alternating in a particular order. The study and the actual use of metres and forms of versification are both known as prosody
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Rhyme
A rhyme is a repetition of similar sounds (or the same sound) in two or more words, most often in the final syllables of lines in poems and songs.[1] The word rhyme is also a pars pro toto ("a part (taken) for the whole") that means a short poem, such as a rhyming couplet or other brief rhyming poem such as nursery rhymes.Contents1 Function of rhyming words 2 Types of rhyme2.1 Perfect rhymes 2.2 General rhymes 2.3 Identical rhymes 2.4 Eye rhyme 2.5 Mind rhyme 2.6 Classification by position3 History3.1 Etymology4 Rhyme in various languages4.1 Celtic languages 4.2 Chinese 4.3 English 4.4 French 4.5 Greek 4.6 Hebrew 4.7 Latin 4.8 Portuguese 4.9 Russian 4.10 Polish 4.11 Arabic 4.12 Sanskrit 4.13 Tamil 4.14 Vietnamese5 See also 6 Notes 7 External linksFunction of rhyming words[edit] Rhyme partly seems to be enjoyed simply as a repeating pattern that is pleasant to hear. It also serves as a powerful mnemonic device, facilitating memorization
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Fyodor Tyutchev
Fyodor Ivanovich Tyutchev (Russian: Фёдор Иванович Тютчев, Pre-Reform orthography: Ѳедоръ Ивановичъ Тютчевъ; December 5 [O.S. November 23] 1803 – July 27 [O.S. July 15] 1873) was a Russian poet and statesman.Contents1 Life 2 Political views 3 Poetry 4 Sample of verse 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksLife[edit] Tyutchev was born into a Russian noble family in the Ovstug family estate near Bryansk
Bryansk
(modern-day Zhukovsky District, Bryansk
Bryansk
Oblast of Russia). His father Ivan Nikolaevich Tyutchev (1768—1846) was a court councillor who served in the Kremlin Expedition that managed all building and restoration works of Moscow palaces
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Predicate (grammar)
There are two competing notions of the predicate in theories of grammar.[2] The competition between these two concepts has generated confusion concerning the use of the term predicate in theories of grammar. This article considers both of these notions. The first concerns traditional grammar, which tends to view a predicate as one of two main parts of a sentence, the other part being the subject; the purpose of the predicate is to complete an idea about the subject, such as what it does or what it is like. The second notion was derived from work in predicate calculus (predicate logic, first order logic) and is prominent in modern theories of syntax and grammar
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Bylina
Bylina
Bylina
or starina (Russian: были́на; pl. были́ны byliny; also ста́рина; pl
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Paradigm
In science and philosophy, a paradigm /ˈpærədaɪm/ is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field.Contents1 Etymology 2 Scientific paradigm 3 Paradigm shifts3.1 Paradigm paralysis4 Incommensurability 5 Subsequent developments5.1 Imre Lakatos
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Dual (grammatical Number)
Dual (abbreviated DU) is a grammatical number that some languages use in addition to singular and plural. When a noun or pronoun appears in dual form, it is interpreted as referring to precisely two of the entities (objects or persons) identified by the noun or pronoun acting as a single unit or in unison. Verbs can also have dual agreement forms in these languages. The dual number existed in Proto-Indo-European, persisted in many of its descendants, such as Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
and Sanskrit, which have dual forms across nouns, verbs, and adjectives, and Gothic, which used dual forms in pronouns and verbs. It can still be found in a few modern Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
such as Scottish Gaelic, Slovenian, and Sorbian
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Slavic Languages
The Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
spoken by the Slavic peoples. They are thought to descend from a proto-language called Proto-Slavic spoken during the Early Middle Ages, which in turn is thought to have descended from the earlier Proto-Balto-Slavic language, linking the Slavic languages
Slavic languages
to the Baltic languages
Baltic languages
in a Balto-Slavic group within the Indo-European family. The Slavic languages
Slavic languages
are divided intro three subgroups: East, West, and South, which together constitute more than twenty languages
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T–V Distinction
In sociolinguistics, a T–V distinction
T–V distinction
(from the Latin
Latin
pronouns tu and vos) is a contrast, within one language, between various forms of addressing one's conversation partner or partners that are specialized for varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity, age or insult toward the addressee. Many languages lack this type of distinction, instead relying on more explicit wording to convey these meanings. The morphosyntactic T–V distinction, though, is found in a variety of languages around the world. Modern English technically has the T–V distinction, manifested in the pronouns thou and you, though the familiar thou is no longer used in most contemporary dialects. Additionally British commoners have historically spoken to nobility and royalty using the third person rather than the second person, a practice that has fallen out of favor
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