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Rumelia Eyalet
The Eyalet
Eyalet
of Rumeli or Rumelia
Rumelia
(Ottoman Turkish: ایالت روم ایلی‎, Eyālet-i Rūm-ėli),[2] also known as the Beylerbeylik of Rumeli, was a first-level province (beylerbeylik or eyalet) of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
encompassing most of the Balkans
Balkans
("Rumelia"). For most of its history it was also the largest and most important province of the Empire. The capital was in Adrianople (Edirne), Sofia, and finally Monastir (Bitola)
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Mahmud Pasha Angelović
Mahmud Pasha
Pasha
Angelović (Serbian: Махмуд-паша Анђеловић/Mahmud-paša Anđelović; Turkish: Veli Mahmud Paşa; 1420–1474) was the Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
from 1456 to 1466 and again from 1472 to 1474, who also wrote Persian and Turkish poems under the pseudonym Adni (the "Eden-like").[1] Born in Serbia, he was a descendant of the Byzantine Angelos family that had left Thessaly
Thessaly
in 1394. As a child, he was abducted by the Ottomans according to the devşirme system and raised as a Muslim
Muslim
in Edirne. A capable soldier, he was married to a daughter of Sultan Mehmed II. After distinguishing himself at the Siege of Belgrade (1456), he was raised to the position of Grand Vizier as a reward, succeeding Zagan Pasha
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Divan
A divan or diwan (Persian: دیوان‎, dīvān) was a high governmental body in a number of Islamic states, or its chief official (see dewan).Contents1 Etymology 2 Creation and development under the early Caliphates2.1 Establishment and Umayyad period 2.2 Abbasid period3 Later Islamic dynasties3.1 Tahirids, Saffarids, Buyids
Buyids
and Samanids 3.2 Seljuqs4 Government councils 5 Ministerial departments 6 References 7 SourcesEtymology[edit]The winter Diwan of a Mughal Nawab.The word, recorded in English since 1586, meaning "Oriental council of a state," from
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Danube
The Danube
Danube
or Donau (/ˈdænjuːb/ DAN-yoob, known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga. It is located in Central and Eastern Europe. The Danube
Danube
was once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire, and today flows through 10 countries, more than any other river in the world. Originating in Germany, the Danube
Danube
flows southeast for 2,860 km (1,780 mi), passing through or touching the border of Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Moldova
Moldova
and Ukraine
Ukraine
before emptying into the Black Sea. Its drainage basin extends into nine more countries
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Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire (/ˈɒtəmən/; Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye[dn 5]), also historically known in Western Europe
Europe
as the Turkish Empire[8] or simply Turkey,[9] was a state that controlled much of southeastern Europe, western Asia and northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia
Anatolia
in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman.[10] After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire
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Fall Of Constantinople
Ottomans Land forces: [e] 50,000–80,000[6]:101 [7]:49[8]:52[9]:618[10][page needed][11][page needed][f]100,000[12]:755–160,000[13][page needed][14][page needed]–200,000[3][page needed]70 cannons[15]:139–14014 large and 56 small caliber)[16]:179Naval forces:70 ships,[10]:4420 galleys[17] 90 – 126 ships [18]Byzantines Land forces:7,000–10,000[5]:85[12]:755[19]:343[12]:755[20]:46[21][page needed]-12,000,[18] 600 Ottoman defectors[22]Naval forces:26 ships[10]:45[g]Casualties and lossesUnknown but heavy[24][4][page needed]4,000 killed in total (including combatants and civilians)[10]:37–8 30,000 enslaved or deported[24]^ More specifically, the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
under the Palaiologos dynasty ^ The Venetians decided to make a peace treaty with the Ottomans in September 1451, because they were on good terms already with the Ottomans and they did not want to ruin a relationship
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Timar
A timar was land granted by the Ottoman sultans between the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries, with a tax revenue annual value of less than 20 000 akçes. The revenues produced from land acted as compensation for military service. A Timar holder was known as a Timariot
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Sipahi
Sipahi
Sipahi
(Ottoman Turkish: سپاهی‎, translit. sipâhi, Turkish pronunciation: [sipaːhi]) were two types of Ottoman cavalry corps, including the fief-holding provincial timarli sipahi, which constituted most of the army, and the regular kapikulu sipahi, palace troops. Other types of cavalry which were not regarded sipahi were the irregular akıncı ("raiders")
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Imperial Council (Ottoman Empire)
Imperial
Imperial
is that which relates to an empire, emperor, or imperialism. Imperial
Imperial
or The
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Grand Vizier
In the Ottoman Empire, the Grand Vizier
Vizier
(Turkish: Sadrazam) was the prime minister of the Ottoman sultan, with absolute power of attorney and, in principle, dismissible only by the sultan himself.[1] He held the imperial seal and could convene all other viziers to attend to affairs of the state; the viziers in conference were called "Kubbealtı viziers" in reference to their meeting place, the Kubbealtı ('under the dome') in Topkapı Palace. His offices were located at the Sublime Porte.Contents1 Grand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire 2 Grand Viziers of the Mughal Empire 3 See also 4 References 5 SourcesGrand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire[edit] Main article: List of Ottoman Grand ViziersSeal of the Ottoman Grand VizierThe term “vizier” was originally a denomination used by the Abbasid Dynasty in the 8th century AD
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Ottoman Capture Of Adrianople
Adrianople, a major Byzantine city in Thrace, was conquered by the Ottomans sometime in the 1360s, and eventually became the Ottoman capital, until the Fall of Constantinople
Fall of Constantinople
in 1453.Contents1 Background 2 Capture of Adrianople 3 Aftermath 4 References 5 SourcesBackground[edit] Following the capture of Gallipoli
Gallipoli
by the Ottomans in 1354, Turkish expansion in the southern Balkans was rapid. Although they had to halt their advance during the Kidnapping of Şehzade Halil
Kidnapping of Şehzade Halil
between 1357–59, after Halil's rescue they resumed their advance
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Mahmud Pasha Angelovic
Mahmud Pasha
Pasha
Angelović (Serbian: Махмуд-паша Анђеловић/Mahmud-paša Anđelović; Turkish: Veli Mahmud Paşa; 1420–1474) was the Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
from 1456 to 1466 and again from 1472 to 1474, who also wrote Persian and Turkish poems under the pseudonym Adni (the "Eden-like").[1] Born in Serbia, he was a descendant of the Byzantine Angelos family that had left Thessaly
Thessaly
in 1394. As a child, he was abducted by the Ottomans according to the devşirme system and raised as a Muslim
Muslim
in Edirne. A capable soldier, he was married to a daughter of Sultan Mehmed II. After distinguishing himself at the Siege of Belgrade (1456), he was raised to the position of Grand Vizier as a reward, succeeding Zagan Pasha
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Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha
Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha
Pasha
("Ibrahim Pasha
Pasha
of Parga"; c. 1495 – 15 March 1536), also known as Frenk Ibrahim Pasha
Pasha
("the Westerner"), Makbul Ibrahim Pasha
Pasha
("the Favorite"), which later changed to Maktul Ibrahim Pasha
Pasha
("the Executed") after his execution in the Topkapı Palace, was the first Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire
Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire
appointed by Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. Ibrahim, born a Christian, was enslaved during his youth. He and Suleiman became close friends in their youth. In 1523, Suleiman appointed Ibrahim as Grand Vizier to replace Piri Mehmed Pasha, who had been appointed in 1518 by Suleiman's father, the preceding sultan Selim I. Ibrahim remained in office for the next 13 years
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Tanzimat
The Tanzimât (Turkish: [tɑnziˈmɑːt]; Ottoman Turkish: تنظيمات‎, translit. Tanẓīmāt, lit. 'reorganization') was a period of reform in the Ottoman Empire that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876.[1] The Tanzimat
Tanzimat
era began with the purpose, not of radical transformation, but of modernization, desiring to consolidate the social and political foundations of the Ottoman Empire.[2] It was characterised by various attempts to modernise the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and to secure its territorial integrity against internal nationalist movements and external aggressive powers
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Süleyman Çelebi
Süleyman Çelebi
Çelebi
(1377 – February 17, 1411) was an Ottoman prince (Turkish: şehzade) and a co-ruler of the empire for several years during the Ottoman Interregnum. The name Çelebi
Çelebi
is an honorific title meaning gentleman; see pre-1934 Turkish naming conventions.Contents1 Background 2 Ottoman Interregnum 3 Aftermath 4 Family 5 References 6 SourcesBackground[edit] Süleyman Çelebi
Çelebi
was a son of Beyazid I.[1] His mother's name is not known. He fought both in the Battle of Niğbolu
Battle of Niğbolu
(1396) against the Crusaders and the Battle of Ankara
Battle of Ankara
(1402) against Temurlane. In the latter, he was in the command of Ottoman left flank
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Mustafa Bey
Mustafa ibn Mahmud (1786–1837) (Arabic: مصطفى باي بن محمد‎) was the ninth leader of the Husainid Dynasty and the ruler of Tunisia from 1835 until his death in 1837.[1] References[edit]^ Abdul Azim Islahi (2015). Economic Thinking of Arab Muslim Writers During the Nineteenth Century. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 147. doi:10.1057/9781137553218. ISBN 978-1-349-55924-4. Preceded by Al-Husayn II ibn Mahmud Bey of Tunis 1835–1837 Succeeded by Ahmad I ibn MustafaThis biography of a member of an African royal house is a stub. You can help by expanding it.v t eThis article about a Tunisian politician is a stub
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