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Royal Irish Constabulary
The Royal Irish Constabulary
Royal Irish Constabulary
(RIC, Irish: Constáblacht Ríoga na hÉireann; simply called the Irish Constabulary 1836–67) was the police force in Ireland from the early nineteenth century until 1922. A separate civic police force, the unarmed Dublin Metropolitan Police, controlled the capital, and the cities of Derry
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Under-Secretary For Ireland
The Under-Secretary for Ireland (Permanent Under-Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland) was the permanent head (or most senior civil servant) of the British administration in Ireland prior to the establishment of the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
in 1922. The Under-Secretary's residence was at Ashtown Lodge in Phoenix Park, also known as the Under Secretary's Lodge. Among the best-known holders of the office was Thomas Henry Burke, who was assassinated along with the C
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Devolution
Devolution
Devolution
is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional or local level. It is a form of administrative decentralization. Devolved territories have the power to make legislation relevant to the area. Devolution
Devolution
differs from federalism in that the devolved powers of the subnational authority may be temporary and are reversible, ultimately residing with the central government. Thus, the state remains de jure unitary. Legislation creating devolved parliaments or assemblies can be repealed or amended by central government in the same way as any statute. In federal systems, by contrast, sub-unit government is guaranteed in the constitution, so the powers of the sub-units cannot be withdrawn unilaterally by the central government (i.e
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Party Processions Act
The Party Processions Act
Party Processions Act
(13 & 14 Vict c2) was an 1850 Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
which prohibited open marching, organised parades and sectarian meetings in Ireland
Ireland
in order to outlaw provocative movements in the wake of the Dolly's Brae fighting of 1849. Written on 8 February, the Act was assembled against people "in the practice of assembling and marching together in procession in Ireland
Ireland
in a manner calculated to create and perpetuate animosities between different classes of Her Majesty's Subjects, and to endanger the public peace."[1] Actions such as using banners, emblems and flags constituted an offence, as did music "calculated or tend to provoke animosity"
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Dolly's Brae Conflict
The Dolly’s Brae conflict occurred in County Down
County Down
in Ulster
Ulster
on 12 July 1849. A contested procession by Orangemen resulted in a skirmish between the Orangemen, local Catholics and Ribbonmen and the police. The Catholics dispersed, following which the Orangemen proceeded to attack local Catholics and destroy property. An official report on the conflict stated that there were thirty deaths. However, this figure is contested by historians. The violence led directly to the Party Processions Act, curtailing activities perceived to be sectarian in Ireland. Nevertheless, the conflict entered Ulster
Ulster
Protestant folk memory as the ‘Battle of Dolly’s Brae’.Contents1 Context 2 12 July 1849 3 Aftermath 4 References 5 External linksContext[edit] The 1840s were a significant decade in Irish history. The Great Famine began in 1845, resulting in around one million deaths
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William Smith O'Brien
William Smith O'Brien
William Smith O'Brien
(Irish: Liam Mac Gabhann Ó Briain; 17 October 1803 – 18 June 1864) was an Irish nationalist
Irish nationalist
Member of Parliament (MP) and leader of the Young Ireland
Young Ireland
movement. He also encouraged the use of the Irish language. He was convicted of sedition for his part in the Young Irelander Rebellion of 1848, but his sentence of death was commuted to deportation to Van Diemen's Land. In 1854, he was released on the condition of exile from Ireland, and he lived in Brussels
Brussels
for two years
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Young Ireland
Young Ireland
Young Ireland
(Irish: Éire Óg, IPA: [ˈeːɾʲə ˈoːɡ]) was a political, cultural and social movement of the mid-19th century. It began as a tendency within Daniel O'Connell's Repeal Association, associated with The Nation newspaper, but eventually split to found the Irish Confederation in 1847. Young Ireland
Young Ireland
led changes in Irish nationalism, including an abortive rebellion known as the Young Irelander Rebellion of 1848. Many of the rebellion's leaders were tried for sedition and sentenced to penal transportation to Van Diemen's Land. From its beginnings in the late 1830s, Young Ireland grew in influence and inspired following generations of Irish nationalists
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Acts Of Union 1800
The Acts of Union 1800
Acts of Union 1800
(sometimes erroneously referred to as a single Act of Union 1801) were parallel acts of the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland
Parliament of Ireland
which united the Kingdom of Great Britain
Great Britain
and the Kingdom of Ireland
Kingdom of Ireland
(previously in personal union) to create the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland
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Victoria Of The United Kingdom
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom
Queen of the United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and King George III
King George III
died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held relatively little direct political power
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Order Of St Patrick
The Most Illustrious Order of Saint Patrick
Saint Patrick
is a dormant British order of chivalry associated with Ireland. The Order was created in 1783 by George III at the request of the then Lord Lieutenant
Lord Lieutenant
of Ireland, The 3rd Earl
Earl
Temple (created The 1st Marquess of Buckingham in 1784). The regular creation of knights of Saint Patrick
Saint Patrick
lasted until 1922, when most of Ireland
Ireland
gained a form of independence as the Irish Free State, a dominion within what was then known as the British Commonwealth
British Commonwealth
of Nations. While the Order technically still exists, no knight of St Patrick has been created since 1936, and the last surviving knight, Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, died in 1974
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Traction Engine
A traction engine is a self-propelled steam engine used to move heavy loads on roads, plough ground or to provide power at a chosen location. The name derives from the Latin tractus, meaning 'drawn', since the prime function of any traction engine is to draw a load behind it. They are sometimes called road locomotives to distinguish them from railway locomotives – that is, steam engines that run on rails. Traction engines tend to be large, robust and powerful, but heavy, slow, and difficult to manoeuvre. Nevertheless, they revolutionized agriculture and road haulage at a time when the only alternative prime mover was the draught horse. They became popular in industrialised countries from around 1850, when the first self-propelled portable steam engines for agricultural use were developed
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Ribbonmen
Ribbonism, whose supporters were usually called Ribbonmen, was a 19th-century popular movement of poor Catholics
Catholics
in Ireland. The movement was also known as Ribandism. The Ribbonmen was active against landlords and their agents, and opposed "Orangeism", the ideology of the Protestant Orange Order.Contents1 History 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit] The Ribbon Society was principally an agrarian secret society, whose members consisted of rural Irish Catholics.[1] The society was formed in response to the miserable conditions in which the vast majority of tenant farmers and rural workers lived in the early 19th century in Ireland. Its objective was to prevent landlords from changing or evicting their tenants
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Tithe War
The Tithe War (Irish: Cogadh na nDeachúna) was a campaign of nonviolent civil disobedience, punctuated by sporadic violent episodes, in Ireland between 1830 and 1836 in reaction to the enforcement of tithes on the Roman Catholic majority for the upkeep of the established state church – the Church of Ireland
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Dublin Castle Administration
Dublin Castle
Dublin Castle
was the centre of the government of Ireland
Ireland
under English and later British rule. "Dublin Castle" is used metonymically to describe British rule in Ireland. The Castle held only the executive branch of government and the Privy Council of Ireland, both appointed by the British government. The Castle did not hold the judicial branch, which was centred on the Four Courts, or the legislature, which met at College Green till the Act of Union 1800
Act of Union 1800
and thereafter at Westminster.Contents1 Head 2 Other officers 3 Civil service 4 See also 5 References 6 SourcesHead[edit] The head of the administration was variously known as the Justicar, the Lord Deputy, from the seventeenth century the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and later the Viceroy
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Provinces Of Ireland
Since the early 17th-century there have been four Provinces of Ireland: Connacht, Leinster, Munster
Munster
and Ulster. The Irish word for this territorial division, cúige, meaning "fifth part", indicates that there were once five, however in the medieval period there were more. The number of provinces and their delimitation fluctuated until 1610 when they were permanently set by the English administration of James I. The provinces of Ireland no longer serve administrative or political purposes, but function as historical and cultural entities.Contents1 Etymology 2 History2.1 Structure 2.2 Early medieval period 2.3 Later medieval period 2.4 Norman Ireland 2.5 Tudor period3 Prehistory3.1 The Three Collas and the founding of Airgíalla4 Usage 5 Provincial flags and arms 6 Demographics and politics 7 Poetic description 8 See also 9 References9.1 Citations 9.2 SourcesEtymology[edit] In modern Irish the word for province is cúige (pl
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Strikebreakers
A strikebreaker (sometimes derogatorily called a scab, blackleg, or knobstick) is a person who works despite an ongoing strike. Strikebreakers are usually individuals who are not employed by the company prior to the trade union dispute, but rather hired after or during the strike to keep the organization running. "Strikebreakers" may also refer to workers (union members or not) who cross picket lines to work. The use of strikebreakers is a worldwide phenomenon; however, many countries have passed laws outlawing their use as they undermine the collective bargaining process
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