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Royal Assent
Royal assent
Royal assent
or sanction is the method by which a country's monarch (possibly through a delegated official) formally approves an act of that nation's parliament. In certain nations, such assent makes the act law (promulgation) while in other nations assent is distinct from promulgation. In the vast majority of contemporary monarchies, this act is considered to be little more than a formality; even in those nations which still permit their monarchs to withhold royal assent (such as the United Kingdom, Norway, and Liechtenstein), the monarch almost never does so, save in a dire political emergency or upon the advice of their government. While the power to withhold royal assent was once exercised often in European monarchies, it is exceedingly rare in the modern, democratic political atmosphere that has developed there since the 18th century. Royal assent
Royal assent
is sometimes associated with elaborate ceremonies
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Royal Veto Of The Appointment Of Bishops
A proposed Royal veto of the appointment of bishops was a contentious topic in the politics of the United Kingdom, in the period 1808 to 1829. According to the proposal, any restoration of the full episcopal hierarchy of the Catholic Church, in Great Britain, should be subject to a veto of the Crown over the appointment of any bishop whose loyalty was suspect. The matter was eventually resolved by the passage of Catholic Emancipation without such a condition.Contents1 Background 2 Intervention from Rome 3 1805 Bill onwards 4 Reaction 5 1813 Bill 6 Quarantotti Rescript 7 Counter-proposal 8 Resolution 9 ReferencesBackground[edit] Although the penal laws enacted against the Catholics of Ireland
Ireland
and of Britain were still on the statute book towards the close of the eighteenth century, they were less strictly administered than before. Several causes helped to bring this about
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Charles II Of England
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685)[c] was king of England, Scotland and Ireland. He was king of Scotland from 1649 until his deposition in 1651, and king of England, Scotland and Ireland from the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 until his death. Charles II's father, Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War. Although the Parliament of Scotland
Parliament of Scotland
proclaimed Charles II king on 5 February 1649, England entered the period known as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth, and the country was a de facto republic, led by Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, and Charles fled to mainland Europe. Cromwell became virtual dictator of England, Scotland and Ireland, and Charles spent the next nine years in exile in France, the Dutch Republic and the Spanish Netherlands
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Curia Regis
Curia regis is a Latin
Latin
term meaning "royal council" or "king's court." It was the name given to councils of advisors and administrators who served early French kings as well as to those serving Norman and later kings of England.Contents1 England1.1 Evolution into specialist institutions2 France 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References5.1 Citations 5.2 Sources6 External linksEngland[edit]Royal Council Curia regisTypeHouses
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Shire
A shire is a traditional term for a division of land, found in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
and some other English speaking countries. It was first used in Wessex
Wessex
from the beginning of Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
settlement, and spread to most of the rest of England
England
in the tenth century
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Borough
A borough is an administrative division in various English-speaking countries. In principle, the term borough designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the term varies widely. History[edit] The word borough derives from common Proto-Germanic "*burgz", meaning "fort": compare with bury, burgh and brough (England), burgh (Scotland), Burg (Germany), borg (Scandinavia), burcht, burg (Dutch), boarch (West Frisian), and the Germanic borrowing present in neighbouring Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
such as borgo (Italian), bourg (French), burgo (Spanish and Portuguese), burg (Romanian), purg (Kajkavian) and durg (दर्ग) (Hindi) and arg (ارگ) (Persian)
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Henry VI Of England
Henry VI (6 December 1421 – 21 May 1471) was King of England
King of England
from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471, and disputed King of France from 1422 to 1453. The only child of Henry V, he succeeded to the English throne at the age of nine months upon his father's death, and succeeded to the French throne on the death of his maternal grandfather Charles VI shortly afterwards. Henry inherited the long-running Hundred Years' War
Hundred Years' War
(1337–1453), in which Charles VII contested his claim to the French throne. His early reign, during which several people were ruling for him, saw the height of English power in France, but subsequent military, diplomatic, and economic problems resulted in the decline of English fortunes in the war
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Lords Spiritual
The Lords Spiritual
Lords Spiritual
of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
are the 26 bishops of the established Church of England
Church of England
who serve in the House of Lords
House of Lords
along with the Lords Temporal. The Church of Scotland, which is Presbyterian, and the Anglican churches in Wales and Northern Ireland, which are no longer established churches, are not represented.Contents1 Ranks and titles 2 Peers 3 Number 4 Politics 5 Ecclesiastics as Lords Temporal 6 2011 Proposed House of Lords
House of Lords
reform 7 Criticism 8 See also 9 References9.1 Bibliography10 External linksRanks and titles[edit] The Church of England
Church of England
comprises 42 dioceses, each led by a diocesan bishop
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Peerage
A peerage is a legal system historically comprising hereditary titles in various countries, comprising various noble ranks. Peerages include:Contents1 Canada 2 France 3 Japan 4 United Kingdom and the British Empire4.1 Great Britain and Ireland 4.2 Lists of peers5 See alsoCanada[edit]Canadian peerages in the nobility of FranceFrance[edit] Peerage of France
Peerage of France
and Peerage of Jerusalem List of French peerages
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Charles I Of England
Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649)[a] was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. Charles was born into the House of Stuart
House of Stuart
as the second son of King James VI
James VI
of Scotland, but after his father inherited the English throne in 1603, he moved to England, where he spent much of the rest of his life. He became heir apparent to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland on the death of his elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, in 1612. An unsuccessful and unpopular attempt to marry him to the Spanish Habsburg
Spanish Habsburg
princess Maria Anna culminated in an eight-month visit to Spain in 1623 that demonstrated the futility of the marriage negotiations
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Militia
A militia /mɪˈlɪʃə/[1] is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai). Generally unable to hold ground against regular forces, it is common for militias to be used for aiding regular troops by skirmishing, holding fortifications, or irregular warfare, instead of being used in offensive campaigns by themselves
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Scottish Militia Bill
The Scottish Militia Bill (known formerly as the Scotch Militia Bill) is the usual name given to a bill that was passed by the House of Commons and House of Lords of the Parliament of Great Britain in early 1708. However, on 11 March 1708,[1] Queen Anne withheld royal assent on the advice of her ministers for fear that the proposed militia would be disloyal.[2] Content[edit] The bill's long title was "An Act for settling the Militia of that Part of Great Britain called Scotland". Its object was to arm the Scottish militia, which had not been recreated at the Restoration. This happened as the unification between Scotland and England under the Acts of Union 1707 had been passed. On the day the bill was meant to be signed, news came that the French were sailing toward Scotland for the planned invasion of 1708 and there was suspicion that the Scottish might be disloyal
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House Of Hanover
The House of Hanover
Hanover
(or the Hanoverians /ˌhænəˈvɪəriənz, -noʊ-, -ˈvɛr-/;[1][2] German: Haus Hannover) is a German royal dynasty that ruled the Electorate and then the Kingdom of Hanover, and then also provided monarchs of Great Britain and Ireland from 1714 to 1800 and ruled the United Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
and Ireland from its creation in 1801 until the death of Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
in 1901. Upon Victoria's death, the British throne passed to her eldest son Edward VII, a member of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
through his father. The House of Hanover
Hanover
was formally named the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Hanover
Hanover
line, as it was originally a cadet branch of the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg
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George III Of The United Kingdom
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738[c] – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain
King of Great Britain
and King of Ireland
King of Ireland
from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
and Ireland until his death. He was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick- Lüneburg
Lüneburg
("Hanover") in the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
before becoming King of Hanover
King of Hanover
on 12 October 1814
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Catholic Emancipation
Catholic emancipation
Catholic emancipation
or Catholic relief was a process in the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
Ireland
in the late 18th century and early 19th century that involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics introduced by the Act of Uniformity, the Test Acts and the penal laws. Requirements to abjure (renounce) the temporal and spiritual authority of the Pope
Pope
and transubstantiation placed major burdens on Roman Catholics. The penal laws started to be dismantled from 1766
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Coronation Of The British Monarch
The coronation of the British monarch is a ceremony (specifically, initiation rite) in which the monarch of the United Kingdom is formally invested with regalia and crowned at Westminster Abbey. It corresponds to the coronations that formerly took place in other European monarchies, all of which have abandoned coronations in favour of inauguration or enthronement ceremonies. The coronation usually takes place several months after the death of the previous monarch, as it is considered a joyous occasion that would be inappropriate while mourning continues. This interval also gives the planners enough time to complete the elaborate arrangements required
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