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Roundedness
In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel. It is labialization of a vowel. When a rounded vowel is pronounced, the lips form a circular opening, and unrounded vowels are pronounced with the lips relaxed. In most languages, front vowels tend to be unrounded, and back vowels tend to be rounded. However, some languages, such as French and German, distinguish rounded and unrounded front vowels of the same height, and Vietnamese distinguishes rounded and unrounded back vowels of the same height. Alekano has only unrounded vowels.[1] In the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
vowel chart, rounded vowels are the ones that appear on the right in each pair of vowels
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Ubykh Phonology
Ubykh, an extinct Northwest Caucasian language, has the largest consonant inventory of all documented languages that do not use clicks, and also has the most disproportional ratio of phonemic consonants to vowels
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Indo-European Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus
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Papua New Guinea
Coordinates: 6°S 147°E / 6°S 147°E / -6; 147Independent State of Papua New GuineaIndependen Stet bilong Papua Niugini Papua Niu GiniFlagNational emblemMotto: "Unity in diversity"[1]Anthem: O Arise, All You Sons [2]Location of  Papua New Guinea  (green)Capital and largest city Port Moresby 9°30′S 147°07′E / 9.500°S 147.117°E / -9.500; 147.117Official languages[3][4]Hiri Motu Tok Pisin PNG Sign Language EnglishDemonym Papua New GuineanGovernment Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy• MonarchElizabeth II• Governor-GeneralBob Dadae• Prime MinisterPeter O'NeillLegislature National ParliamentIndependence from Australia• Papua and
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Sepik Languages
The Sepik languages are a family of some 50 Papuan languages
Papuan languages
spoken in the Sepik river basin of northern Papua New Guinea, proposed by Donald Laycock in 1965 in a somewhat more limited form than presented here. They tend to have simple phonologies, with few consonants or vowels and usually no tones. The best known Sepik language is Iatmül. The most populous are Iatmül's fellow Ndu languages Abelam and Boiken, with about 35 000 speakers apiece. The Sepik languages, like their Ramu neighbors, appear to have three-vowel systems, /ɨ ə a/, that distinguish only vowel height. Phonetic [i e o u] are a result of palatal and labial assimilation to adjacent consonants
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Northwest Caucasian Languages
The Northwest Caucasian languages,[2] also called West Caucasian, Abkhazo-Adyghean, Circassic, or sometimes Pontic (as opposed to Caspian for the Northeast Caucasian languages), are a group of languages spoken in the northwestern Caucasus
Caucasus
region,[3] chiefly in three Russian republics (Adygea, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay–Cherkessia), the disputed territory of Abkhazia
Abkhazia
(whose sovereignty is claimed by Georgia), and Turkey, with smaller communities scattered throughout the Middle East
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Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Romanization
Romanization
(simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang,[1] based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Standard Chinese Phonology
This article summarizes the phonology (the sound system, or in more general terms, the pronunciation) of Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
(Standard Mandarin). Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is based on the Beijing dialect of Mandarin. Actual production varies widely among speakers, as they inadvertently introduce elements of their native dialects (although television and radio announcers are chosen for their pronunciation accuracy and standard accent). Elements of the sound system include not only the segments – the vowels and consonants of the language – but also the tones that are applied to each syllable. Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
has four main tones, in addition to a neutral tone used on weak syllables. This article represents phonetic values using the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), noting correspondences chiefly with the pinyin system for transcription of Chinese text
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Assimilation (linguistics)
In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound. This can occur either within a word or between words. It occurs in normal speech, and it becomes more common in more rapid speech. In rapid speech, for example, "handbag" is often pronounced /ˈhæmbæɡ/. The pronunciations /ˈhænˌbæɡ/ or /ˈhændˌbæɡ/ are however common in normal speech whereas the word "cupboard", for example, is always pronounced /ˈkʌbərd/, never /ˈkʌpˌbɔrd/, and even in slow, highly articulated speech. As in these examples, sound segments typically assimilate to a following sound (this is called regressive or anticipatory assimilation), but they may also assimilate to a preceding one (progressive assimilation)
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Kukuya Language
The Kukuya language, Kikukuya [kìkýkçȳā], also transcribed Kukẅa and known as Southern Teke, is a member of the Teke dialect continuum of the Congolese plateau. It is known for being the only language claimed to have a phonemic labiodental nasal /ɱ/ outside Europe. The name comes from the word kuya "plateau". Phonology[edit] The five vowels are /i e~ɛ a o~ɔ u/, which may be long (double) or short. Other vowel sequences do not occur. /u/ is realised as [y] in the environment /ɲuni/ ([ɲyni]) and also before [j] or another [y], as in the name Kukuya [kýkçȳā].m ɱ n ɲ ŋmpʰ mb ɱp̪fʰ ɱb̪v ntʰ nd ntsʰ ndzŋkʰ ŋɡp b pf bv t~ɾ d ts dzk~ɡfs j~z (h)lwPrenasalized voiceless consonants are aspirated. Y is pronounced [j] or [z] depending on speaker and region, apart from the word "with", which is always [jà]
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Akan Language
Akan /əˈkæn/[2] is a Central Tano language that is the principal native language of the Akan people
Akan people
of Ghana, spoken over much of the southern half of that country, by about 58% of the population, and among 30% of the population of Ivory Coast.[citation needed] Three dialects have been developed as literary standards with distinct orthographies: Asante, Akuapem (together called Twi), and Fante, which, despite being mutually intelligible, were inaccessible in written form to speakers of the other standards. In 1978 the Akan Orthography Committee (AOC) established a common orthography for all of Akan, which is used as the medium of instruction in primary school by speakers of several other Central Tano languages such as Anyi, Sehwi, Ahanta, and the Guang languages. The Akan Orthography Committee has compiled a unified orthography of 20,000 words
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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German Language
No official regulation ( German orthography
German orthography
regulated by the Council for German Orthography[4]). Language
Language
codesISO 639-1 deISO 639-2 ger (B) deu (T)ISO 639-3 Variously: deu – German gmh&#
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Phonetics
Phonetics (pronounced /fəˈnɛtɪks/) is a branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.[1] It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds or signs (phones): their physiological production, acoustic properties, auditory perception, and neurophysiological status
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French Language
French (le français [lə fʁɑ̃sɛ] ( listen) or la langue française [la lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃sɛz]) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages
Celtic languages
of Northern Roman Gaul
Gaul
like Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders
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Alekano Language
Alekano, or Gahuku (Gahuku-Gama), is a Papuan language spoken in the northern district of Goroka Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea. There are about 25,000 speakers.[3] Alekano is also known as Gahuku, after the name of the largest clan of speakers, or Gama, after the second largest clan. Calling the language by these names has been rejected by speakers who are not members of these clans, and Alekano has been largely adopted as the official name. The latter name means "bring it". In two closely related languages spoken directly to the northwest, Tokano and Dano, it has the same meaning.[4][5]Contents1 Phonology1.1 Vowels 1.2 Glottal coda 1.3 Consonants 1.4 Syllables 1.5 Tone2 Grammar 3 Orthography 4 References 5 External linksPhonology[edit] Alekano has 5 vowels, all unrounded, which is exceptional
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