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Rotax 912 Uls
The Rotax
Rotax
912 is a naturally aspirated, air- and water-cooled, horizontally opposed four-cylinder, four-stroke, gear reduction-drive engine commonly used on certified aircraft, light sport aircraft, ultralight aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles. Rotax
Rotax
produced its 50,000th 912-series engine in 2014.[1]Contents1 Development1.1 Warnings2 Variants 3 Applications 4 Specifications ( Rotax
Rotax
912 UL/A/F)4.1 General characteristics 4.2 Components 4.3 Performance5 See also 6 References 7 External linksDevelopment[edit] The original 80 hp (60 kW) 912 engine has a capacity of 1,211 cc (73.9 cu in) and a compression ratio of 9.1:1. The later 912S / ULS is enlarged to 1,352 cubic centimetres (82.5 cu in) and has a compression ratio of 10.8:1, yielding 100 hp (75 kW)
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3Xtrim 3X55 Trener
The 3X55 Trener (Trainer) and 3X47 Ultra are a family of ultralight aircraft produced in Poland
Poland
by the 3Xtrim Aircraft Factory. Both are two-seat, high-wing, strut-braced monoplanes with fixed tricycle undercarriage and available only as completed aircraft. There are also 450 Ultra and 495 Ultra Plus sub-variants of the 3X47 Ultra, with gross weights adjusted for national ultralight regulations.[1][2] The US light sport aircraft version of the 3X55 is known as the Navigator 600 and has a 1320-pound maximum gross takeoff weight[3] 3Xtrim take their company name from a double entendre, as they refer to their designs being "triple trimmed" (or more exactly "triple-tested") during the design, prototype and production stages and also that the aircraft is designed for "extreme conditions"
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Acrolite
The Acrolite is a family of Canadian amateur-built aircraft, designed by Ron Wilson and produced by Acrolite Aircraft of Kakabeka Falls, Ontario, in the form of plans for amateur construction.[1][2][3] The company seems to have gone out of business at the end of 2016.[4]Contents1 Design and development 2 Operational history 3 Variants 4 Specifications ( Acrolite 1C) 5 References 6 External linksDesign and development[edit] The aircraft in the series all feature one or two seats, fixed conventional landing gear and a single engine in tractor configuration. The Acrolite fuselages are all made from welded 4130 steel tubing, with wooden structure wings covered in hot laminated plywood and control surfaces made from aluminum sheet. All other surfaces are covered in doped aircraft fabric
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Dry Sump
A dry-sump system is a method to manage the lubricating motor oil in four-stroke and large two-stroke piston driven internal combustion engines. The dry-sump system uses two or more oil pumps and a separate oil reservoir, as opposed to a conventional wet-sump system, which uses only the main sump (U.S.: oil pan) below the engine and a single pump. A dry-sump engine requires a pressure relief valve to regulate negative pressure inside the engine, so internal seals are not inverted. Engines are both lubricated and cooled by oil that circulates throughout the engine, feeding various bearings and other moving parts and then draining, via gravity, into the sump at the base of the engine. In the wet-sump system of most production automobile engines, a pump collects this oil from the sump and directly circulates it back through the engine
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Carburetor
A carburetor (American English) or carburettor (British English; see spelling differences) is a device that mixes air and fuel for internal combustion engines in the proper ratio for combustion. It is sometimes colloquially shortened to carb in the UK and North America or carby in Australia.[1] To carburate or carburet (and thus carburation or carburetion, respectively) means to mix the air and fuel or to equip (an engine) with a carburetor for that purpose. Carburetors have largely been supplanted in the automotive and, to a lesser extent, aviation industries by fuel injection
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Time Between Overhaul
Time between overhaul (abbreviated as TBO or TBOH) is the manufacturer's recommended number of running hours or calendar time before an aircraft engine or other component requires overhaul.[1] On rotorcraft many components have recommended or mandatory TBOs, including main rotor blades, tail rotor blades and gearboxes. For engines the time between overhauls is generally a function of the complexity of the engine and how it is used.[1] Piston-based engines are much more complex than turbine-powered engines, and generally have TBOs on the order of 1,200 to 2,000 hours of running time. They tend toward the lower number if they are new designs, or include boosting options like a turbocharger. In comparison, jet engines and turboprops often have TBOs on the order of 3,000 to 5,000 hours. Since overhauling needs the engine to be taken apart, it is typically expensive
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Continental O-200
The Continental C90 and O-200 are a family of air-cooled, horizontally opposed, four-cylinder, direct-drive aircraft engines of 201 in³ (3.29 L) displacement, producing between 90 and 100 horsepower (67 and 75 kW).[1] Built by Continental Motors these engines are used in many light aircraft designs of the United States, including the early Piper PA-18 Super Cub,[2] the Champion 7EC,[3] the Alon Aircoupe,[4] and the Cessna 150.[5] Though the C90 was superseded by the O-200, and many of the designs utilizing the O-200 had gone out of production by 1980, with the 2004 publication of the United States Federal Aviation Administration light-sport aircraft regulations[6] came a resurgence in demand for the O-200
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Fuel Injection
Fuel
Fuel
injection is the introduction of fuel in an internal combustion engine, most commonly automotive engines, by the means of an injector. All diesel engines use fuel injection by design
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Rotorcraft
A rotorcraft or rotary-wing aircraft[1] is a heavier-than-air flying machine that uses lift generated by wings, called rotary wings or rotor blades, that revolve around a mast. Several rotor blades mounted on a single mast are referred to as a rotor. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) defines a rotorcraft as "supported in flight by the reactions of the air on one or more rotors".[2] Rotorcraft
Rotorcraft
generally include those aircraft where one or more rotors are required to provide lift throughout the entire flight, such as helicopters, cyclocopters, autogyros, and gyrodynes
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Aerobatic
Aerobatics
Aerobatics
(a portmanteau of aerial-acrobatics) is the practice of flying maneuvers involving aircraft attitudes that are not used in normal flight.[1][2] Aerobatics
Aerobatics
are performed in airplanes and gliders for training, recreation, entertainment, and sport. Additionally, some helicopters, such as the MBB Bo 105, are capable of limited aerobatic maneuvers.[3] An example of a fully aerobatic helicopter, capable of performing loops and rolls, is the Westland Lynx. Most aerobatic maneuvers involve rotation of the aircraft about its longitudinal (roll) axis or lateral (pitch) axis. Other maneuvers, such as a spin, displace the aircraft about its vertical (yaw) axis.[4] Maneuvers are often combined to form a complete aerobatic sequence for entertainment or competition
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Joint Aviation Requirements
The Joint Aviation Requirements (JAR) were a set of common comprehensive and detailed aviation requirement issued by the Joint Aviation Authorities, intended to minimise Type Certification problems on joint ventures, and also to facilitate the export and import of aviation products. They were recognised by the national aviation authorities of participating countries as an acceptable basis for showing compliance with their national airworthiness codes. The European Aviation Safety Agency
European Aviation Safety Agency
(EASA) was created in 2003 and reached full functionality in 2008, and has since taken over most of the JAA functions
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Federal Aviation Regulations
The Federal Aviation
Aviation
Regulations, or FARs, are rules prescribed by the Federal Aviation Administration
Federal Aviation Administration
(FAA) governing all aviation activities in the United States. The FARs are part of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations
Code of Federal Regulations
(CFR). A wide variety of activities are regulated, such as aircraft design and maintenance, typical airline flights, pilot training activities, hot-air ballooning, lighter-than-air aircraft, man-made structure heights, obstruction lighting and marking, and even model rocket launches, model aircraft operation, sUAS & Drone operation, and kite flying
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3I Sky Arrow
The Sky Arrow is a tandem-seat, pusher configuration, high-wing carbon fibre light aircraft that was manufactured by 3I (Iniziative Industriali Italiane). With only 16½ inches of hip room, the aircraft is considered open due to a large amount of unobstructed view from the large canopy, rear engine, and seating positions ahead of the wing.[1] 3I entered bankruptcy proceedings in 2008 and in 2012 the design was purchased by Magnaghi Aeronautica, of Naples, Italy.[2][3][4]Contents1 Design and development 2 Variants 3 Specifications (650) 4 References 5 External linksDesign and development[edit] Magnaghi Aeronautica, the new owners of the design in 2012, announced that it will be upgraded with larger wing tanks, improved aerodynamics and stability, strengthened structural elements and a new avionics package. The Sky Arrow will be available as a completed certified aircraft for light sport or as a kit. A four-seat version is also planned
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Advanced Aeromarine Buccaneer
The Buccaneer (also known in some of its many incarnations as the Mallard) is a one- or two-seat ultralight high-wing amphibious flying boat of pusher configuration marketed as a kit aircraft. The aircraft was manufactured by a number of U.S. firms in slightly different forms, including Arnet Pereyra Inc,[2] HighCraft AeroMarine, Advanced Aviation and Keuthan Aircraft.Contents1 Development 2 Design 3 Operational use 4 Variants 5 Specifications (Buccaneer XA) 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksDevelopment[edit] The original single-seat model Buccaneer XA was introduced in 1984 and qualified for the US FAR 103 Ultralight
Ultralight
Vehicle category. The aircraft was commercial success and sold well until being replaced by the Buccaneer SX in 1988. The SX remained available on the market until general production ended in 1998, although in 2001 the model was still available as a special order from Aero Adventure Aviation
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Propeller Speed Reduction Unit
A propeller speed reduction unit is a gearbox or a belt and pulley device used to reduce the output revolutions per minute (rpm) from the higher input rpm of the powerplant.[1] This allows the use of small displacement internal combustion automotive engines to turn aircraft propellers within an efficient speed range.Contents1 History and operation1.1 Types 1.2 Design variations2 Applications 3 See also 4 References4.1 Notes 4.2 BibliographyHistory and operation[edit] The Wright brothers
Wright brothers
recognised the need for propeller reduction gearing in 1903, but it was no
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Aero Adventure Aventura
The Aero Adventure Aventura
Aero Adventure Aventura
is a family of ultralight amphibians marketed as a kit aircraft by Aero Adventure Aviation
Aero Adventure Aviation
of Rockledge, Florida. The aircraft was designed by Bob Bailey in 1995.[1][2][3] The aircraft are high-wing flying boats of pusher configuration available in both single and two-seat models. Its design heritage stretches back to the Advanced Aeromarine Buccaneer
Advanced Aeromarine Buccaneer
amphibian ultralights.[1][2]Contents1 Design 2 Variants 3 Specifications (Aventura HP) 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksDesign[edit] Introduced in 1995, the single-seat Aventura has repositionable main landing gear, down for runways and up for landing on water. The steerable tail wheel is retractable in concert with the repositioning of the main gear. There is no water rudder. The wing is an aluminium frame covered with pre-sewn Dacron envelopes
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