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Rotational Latency
Higher performance in hard disk drives comes from devices which have better performance characteristics.[1][2] These devices include those with rotating media, hereby called rotating drives, i.e., hard disk drives (HDD), floppy disk drives (FDD), optical discs ( DVD-RW
DVD-RW
/ CD-RW), and it also covers devices without moving parts like solid-state drives (SSD)
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Western Digital
Western Digital
Western Digital
Corporation (commonly referred to as Western Digital and often abbreviated as WDC) is an American computer data storage company and one of the largest computer hard disk drive manufacturers in the world, along with its main competitor Seagate Technology.[2] Western Digital
Western Digital
Corporation has a long history in the electronics industry as an integrated circuit maker and a storage products company. Western Digital
Western Digital
was founded on April 23, 1970, by Alvin B. Phillips, a Motorola
Motorola
employee, as General Digital, initially (and briefly) a manufacturer of MOS test equipment
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Garbage Collection (SSD)
Write amplification (WA) is an undesirable phenomenon associated with flash memory and solid-state drives (SSDs) where the actual amount of information physically written to the storage media is a multiple of the logical amount intended to be written. Because flash memory must be erased before it can be rewritten, with much coarser granularity of the erase operation when compared to the write operation,[a] the process to perform these operations results in moving (or rewriting) user data and metadata more than once. Thus, rewriting some data requires an already used portion of flash to be read, updated and written to a new location, together with initially erasing the new location if it was previously used at some point in time; due to the way flash works, much larger portions of flash must be erased and rewritten than actually required by the amount of new data
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Gramophone Record
A phonograph record (also known as a gramophone record, especially in British English, or record) is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. The groove usually starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. At first, the discs were commonly made from shellac; starting in the 1950s polyvinyl chloride became common. In recent decades, records have sometimes been called vinyl records, or simply vinyl, although this would exclude most records made until after World War II. The phonograph disc record was the primary medium used for music reproduction until late in the 20th century. It had co-existed with the phonograph cylinder from the late 1880s and had effectively superseded it by around 1912. Records retained the largest market share even when new formats such as the compact cassette were mass-marketed
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Power Consumption
2015 World electricity generation by fuels (IEA, 2017)[1]   Coal/Peat (39.3%)   Natural Gas (22.9%)   Hydro (16.0%)   Nuclear (10.6%)   Oil (4.1%)   Others (Renew.) (7.1%) Electric energy consumption is the form of energy consumption that uses electric energy
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Waste Heat
Waste
Waste
heat is heat that is produced by a machine, or other process that uses energy, as a byproduct of doing work. All such processes give off some waste heat as a fundamental result of the laws of thermodynamics. Waste
Waste
heat has lower utility (or in thermodynamics lexicon a lower exergy or higher entropy) than the original energy source
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Green Computing
Green computing, green ICT as per International Federation of Global & Green ICT "IFGICT", green IT, or ICT sustainability, is the study and practice of environmentally sustainable computing or IT. The goals of green computing are similar to green chemistry: reduce the use of hazardous materials, maximize energy efficiency during the product's lifetime, the recyclability or biodegradability of defunct products and factory waste
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Microsecond
A microsecond is an SI unit
SI unit
of time equal to one millionth (0.000001 or 10−6 or 1/1,000,000) of a second. Its symbol is μs. One microsecond is to one second as one second is to 11.574 days. A microsecond is equal to 1000 nanoseconds or 1/1,000 milliseconds. Because the next SI prefix
SI prefix
is 1000 times larger, measurements of 10−5 and 10−4 seconds are typically expressed as tens or hundreds of microseconds. A microsecond of sound signal sample (44.1 kHz, 2 channel, 24 bit, WAV) is typically stored on 4 µm of CD, 2 bits per µs per 4 µm.Contents1 Examples 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksExamples[edit]1 microsecond (1 μs) – cycle time for frequency 1 × 106 hertz (1 MHz), the inverse unit
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Disk Buffer
In computer storage, disk buffer (often ambiguously called disk cache or cache buffer) is the embedded memory in a hard disk drive (HDD) acting as a buffer between the rest of the computer and the physical hard disk platter that is used for storage.[1] Modern hard disk drives come with 8 to 256 MiB of such memory, and solid-state drives come with up to 1 GB of cache memory. Since the late 1980s, nearly all disks sold have embedded microcontrollers and either an ATA, Serial ATA, SCSI, or Fibre Channel interface. The drive circuitry usually has a small amount of memory, used to store the data going to and coming from the disk platters. The disk buffer is physically distinct from and is used differently from the page cache typically kept by the operating system in the computer's main memory. The disk buffer is controlled by the microcontroller in the hard disk drive, and the page cache is controlled by the computer to which that disk is attached
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Defragmentation
In the maintenance of file systems, defragmentation is a process that reduces the amount of fragmentation. It does this by physically organizing the contents of the mass storage device used to store files into the smallest number of contiguous regions (fragments). It also attempts to create larger regions of free space using compaction to impede the return of fragmentation. Some defragmentation utilities try to keep smaller files within a single directory together, as they are often accessed in sequence. Defragmentation
Defragmentation
is advantageous and relevant to file systems on electromechanical disk drives
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Write Amplification
Write amplification
Write amplification
(WA) is an undesirable phenomenon associated with flash memory and solid-state drives (SSDs) where the actual amount of information physically written to the storage media is a multiple of the logical amount intended to be written. Because flash memory must be erased before it can be rewritten, with much coarser granularity of the erase operation when compared to the write operation,[a] the process to perform these operations results in moving (or rewriting) user data and metadata more than once. Thus, rewriting some data requires an already used portion of flash to be read, updated and written to a new location, together with initially erasing the new location if it was previously used at some point in time; due to the way flash works, much larger portions of flash must be erased and rewritten than actually required by the amount of new data
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TRIM
A trim command (known as TRIM in the ATA command set, and UNMAP in the SCSI command set) allows an operating system to inform a solid-state drive (SSD) which blocks of data are no longer considered in use and can be wiped internally.[1] Trim was introduced soon after SSDs were introduced
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Megabyte
The megabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information. Its recommended unit symbol is MB. The unit prefix mega is a multiplier of 1000000 (106) in the International System of Units (SI).[1] Therefore, one megabyte is one million bytes of information. This definition has been incorporated into the International System of Quantities. However, in the computer and information technology fields, several other definitions are used that arose for historical reasons of convenience. A common usage has been to designate one megabyte as 1048576bytes (220 B), a measurement that conveniently expresses the binary multiples inherent in digital computer memory architectures. However, most standards bodies have deprecated this usage in favor of a set of binary prefixes,[2] in which this quantity is designated by the unit mebibyte (MiB)
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Constant Linear Velocity
In optical storage, constant linear velocity (CLV) is a qualifier for the rated speed of an optical disc drive, and may also be applied to the writing speed of recordable discs. CLV implies that the angular velocity (i.e. rpm) varies during an operation, as contrasted with CAV modes. The concept of constant linear velocity was patented in 1886 by phonograph pioneers Chichester Bell and Charles Tainter. Laserdiscs, the first consumer optical discs, used constant linear velocity to double playback time (CLV / "extended play" discs can hold 1 hour per side; CAV / "standard play" discs can only hold 30 minutes). As the motor's speed decreases from 1,800 to 600 rpm when the read head moves away from the center (which is the start of the recording), the disc constantly moves past the read head at a constant speed. Later optical formats such as the audio CD also employ CLV to maintain both a constant data rate and a constant bit density
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Failure Rate
Failure
Failure
rate is the frequency with which an engineered system or component fails, expressed in failures per unit of time. It is often denoted by the Greek letter λ (lambda) and is highly used in reliability engineering. The failure rate of a system usually depends on time, with the rate varying over the life cycle of the system. For example, an automobile's failure rate in its fifth year of service may be many times greater than its failure rate during its first year of service. One does not expect to replace an exhaust pipe, overhaul the brakes, or have major transmission problems in a new vehicle. In practice, the mean time between failures (MTBF, 1/λ) is often reported instead of the failure rate. This is valid and useful if the failure rate may be assumed constant – often used for complex units / systems, electronics – and is a general agreement in some reliability standards (Military and Aerospace)
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Parallel ATA
Parallel ATA
Parallel ATA
(PATA), originally AT Attachment, is an interface standard for the connection of storage devices such as hard disk drives, floppy disk drives, and optical disc drives in computers. The standard is maintained by the X3/ INCITS committee.[1] It uses the underlying AT Attachment (ATA) and AT Attachment Packet Interface (ATAPI) standards. The Parallel ATA
Parallel ATA
standard is the result of a long history of incremental technical development, which began with the original AT Attachment interface, developed for use in early PC AT
PC AT
equipment. The ATA interface itself evolved in several stages from Western Digital's original Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) interface. As a result, many near-synonyms for ATA/ATAPI and its previous incarnations are still in common informal use, in particular Extended IDE (EIDE) and Ultra ATA (UATA)
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