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Rostam And Sohrab
ROSTAM or RUSTAM (Persian : رُستَم‎‎, pronounced ) is the most celebrated legendary hero in Shahnameh
Shahnameh
and Iranian mythology . In Shahnameh, Rostam
Rostam
and his predecessors are Marzbans of Sistan (present-day Iran
Iran
and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
). Rostam
Rostam
is best known for his tragic fight with Esfandiar
Esfandiar
, the other legendary Iranian hero, for his expedition to Mazandaran (not to be confused with today Mazandaran province ), and for his mournful fight with his son, Sohrab
Sohrab
, who was killed in the battle. Rostam
Rostam
was eventually killed by Shaghad , his half-brother. He was son of Zal and Rudaba
Rudaba

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Umayyad Caliphate
The UMAYYAD CALIPHATE ( Arabic
Arabic
: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة‎‎, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelled OMAYYAD, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad
Muhammad
. This caliphate was centred on the Umayyad dynasty ( Arabic
Arabic
: ٱلأُمَوِيُّون‎‎, al-ʾUmawiyyūn, or بَنُو أُمَيَّة, Banū ʾUmayya, "Sons of Umayya "), hailing from Mecca
Mecca
. The Umayyad family had first come to power under the third caliph, Uthman ibn Affan (r. 644–656), but the Umayyad regime was founded by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan , long-time governor of Syria
Syria
, after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in AD 661/41 AH
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Rashidun Caliphate
The RASHIDUN CALIPHATE (Arabic : اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ‎‎ al-Khilāfaṫur-Rāshidah) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
. It was ruled by the first four successive caliphs (successors) of Muhammad
Muhammad
after his death in 632 CE (11 AH in the Islamic calendar
Islamic calendar
). These caliphs are collectively known in Sunni Islam
Islam
as the Rashidun
Rashidun
or "Rightly Guided" caliphs (Arabic : اَلْخُلَفَاءُ ٱلرَّاشِدُونَ‎‎ al-Khulafā’ur-Rāshidūn). This term is not used in Shia Islam
Islam
as Shia Muslims do not consider the rule of the first three caliphs as legitimate
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Abbasid Caliphate
The ABBASID CALIPHATE (/əˈbæsᵻd/ or /ˈæbəsᵻd/ Arabic
Arabic
: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة‎‎ al-Khilāfatu al-‘Abbāsīyah) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
. The Abbasid dynasty descended from Muhammad's youngest uncle, Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib (566–653 CE), from whom the dynasty takes its name. They ruled as caliphs , for most of their period from their capital in Baghdad
Baghdad
in modern-day Iraq
Iraq
, after assuming authority over the Muslim empire from the Umayyads in 750 CE (132 AH). The Abbasid caliphate first centered its government in Kufa
Kufa
, but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur founded the city of Baghdad, north of the Sasanian capital city of Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon

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Dabuyid Dynasty
The DABUYID or GAUBARID DYNASTY was a Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
Iranian dynasty that started in the early seventh century as an independent group of rulers, reigning over Tabaristan
Tabaristan
and parts of western Khorasan . Dabuyid rule over Tabaristan
Tabaristan
and Khorasan lasted from ca. AD 642 to the Abbasid
Abbasid
conquest in 760. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Dabuyid rulers * 3 References * 4 Sources HISTORYThe family's early history is semi-mythical, and recorded by the later historian Ibn Isfandiyar . According to this story, the Dabuyids were descended from a brother of the Sassanid shah Kavadh I . His grandson Firuz conquered Gilan
Gilan
, and Firuz's grandson Gil, surnamed Gavbara, then extended the family's rule over Tabaristan
Tabaristan
as well
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Bavand Dynasty
The BAVAND DYNASTY (Persian : باوندیان‎‎) (also spelled BAVEND), or simply the BAVANDIDS, was an Iranian dynasty that ruled in parts of Tabaristan
Tabaristan
(Mazandaran ) in what is now northern Iran
Iran
from 651 until 1349, alternating between outright independence and submission as vassals to more powerful regional rulers. CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 History * 2.1 Kayusiyya line * 3 Culture * 4 Bavandid rulers * 4.1 Kayusiyya * 4.2 Ispahbadhiyya * 4.3 Kinkhwariyya * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Sources * 8 External links ORIGINSThe dynasty itself traced its descent back to Bav, who was alleged to be a grandson of the Sasanian prince Kawus , brother of Khosrau I , and son of the shah Kavadh I (ruled 488–531), who supposedly fled to Tabaristan
Tabaristan
from the Muslim conquest of Persia
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Qarinvand Dynasty
The QARINVAND DYNASTY (also spelled KARINVAND, KARENVAND, and QARENVAND), or simply the KARINIDS or QARINIDS, was an Iranian dynasty that ruled in parts of Tabaristan
Tabaristan
(Mazandaran ) in what is now northern Iran
Iran
from the 550s until the 11th-century. They considered themselves as the inheritors of the Dabuyid dynasty
Dabuyid dynasty
, and were known by their titles of Gilgilan and Ispahbadh . They were descended from Sukhra , a Parthian nobleman from the House of Karen , who was the de facto ruler of the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
from 484 to 493. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Known Qarinvand rulers * 3 References * 4 Sources HISTORYThe dynasty was founded by Karen, who in return for aiding the Sasanian king Khosrow I (r
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Zarmihrids
The ZARMIHRID DYNASTY was a local dynasty of Tabaristan
Tabaristan
which ruled over parts of the mountainous areas of the region since the reign of Sasanian king Khosrau I to 785. The family claimed its origin from a powerful Karen lord named Sukhra , a descendant of Kaveh the blacksmith , the national hero of Iran, and who was one of the leading nobles of the empire during the reign of Balash and Kavadh I
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Seleucid Empire
The SELEUCID EMPIRE (/sɪˈljuːsɪd/ ; Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic
Hellenistic
state ruled by the Seleucid
Seleucid
dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; it was founded by Seleucus I Nicator following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
. Seleucus received Babylonia
Babylonia
and, from there, expanded his dominions to include much of Alexander's near eastern territories
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Kingdom Of Pontus
The KINGDOM OF PONTUS or PONTIC EMPIRE was a state founded by the Persian Mithridatic dynasty
Mithridatic dynasty
, which may have been directly related to Darius the Great and the Achaemenid dynasty
Achaemenid dynasty
. The kingdom was proclaimed by Mithridates I in 281 BCE and lasted until its conquest by the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
in 63 BCE. It reached its largest extent under Mithridates VI
Mithridates VI
the Great, who conquered Colchis
Colchis
, Cappadocia
Cappadocia
, Bithynia , the Greek colonies of the Tauric Chersonesos , and for a brief time the Roman province of Asia
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Parthian Empire
The PARTHIAN EMPIRE (/ˈpɑːrθiən/ ; 247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the ARSACID EMPIRE (/ˈɑːrsəsɪd/ ), was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran
Iran
and Iraq
Iraq
. Its latter name comes from Arsaces I of Parthia who, as leader of the Parni tribe, founded it in the mid-3rd century BC when he conquered the region of Parthia in Iran
Iran
's northeast, then a satrapy (province) in rebellion against the Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
. Mithridates I of Parthia (r. c. 171–138 BC) greatly expanded the empire by seizing Media and Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the Seleucids
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Suren Kingdom
The SUREN KINGDOM, also known as the INDO-PARTHIANS, was a kingdom ruled by the House of Suren
House of Suren
from c. 119 BC to 240 AD. The kingdom mainly ruled in Sakastan
Sakastan
during its whole existence, but at its zenith, it stretched as far as Sindh
Sindh
. In 240, the kingdom was incorporated into the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
. CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 History * 3 List of rulers * 4 Sources ORIGIN THIS SECTION IS EMPTY. You can help by adding to it . (January 2016)HISTORY THIS SECTION IS EMPTY. You can help by adding to it . (January 2016)LIST OF RULERSThe following list shows the known rulers of the kingdom: * Vonones of Sakastan
Sakastan
(75–65 BC) * Surena (??? - 53 BC) * Gondophares
Gondophares
(r. 19 AD - 46) * Abdagases I (r
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Masmughans Of Damavand
The MASMUGHANS OF DAMAVAND ( Middle Persian
Middle Persian
: Masmughan-i Dumbawand, New Persian : مس مغان دماوند, meaning Great Magians of Damavand) were a local dynasty, which ruled Damavand and its surrounding areas from ca. 651 to 760. The founder of the dynasty was a Karenid named Mardanshah of Damavand . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Sources HISTORYThe Masmughans of Damavand
Masmughans of Damavand
are first mentioned by Al-Tabari , where the Masmughan Mardanshah of Damavand reportedly aided the Mihranid Siyavakhsh at Ray against the Arabs. The forces of Siyavakhsh and Mardanshah, were, however, defeated. Mardanshah then made peace with the Arabs in return for an annual tribute
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Paduspanids
The PADUSPANIDS or BADUSPANIDS (Persian : پادوسبانیان) were a local dynasty of Tabaristan
Tabaristan
which ruled over Royan , Nur and Rostamdar. The dynasty was established in 665, and ended in 1598 when the Safavids
Safavids
invaded their domains. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Known Paduspanid rulers * 2.1 Nur branch * 2.2 Kojur branch * 3 References * 4 Sources HISTORYThe founder of the Paduspanid dynasty was Paduspan I, (also known by the Arabicized form Baduspan), who was the son of Gil Gavbara , the founder of the Dabuyid dynasty
Dabuyid dynasty
. Thus making the Paduspanids
Paduspanids
of Sasanian
Sasanian
descent like the Dabuyids
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Sallarid Dynasty
The SALLARID DYNASTY (Persian : سالاریان‎‎), (also known as the MUSAFIRIDS or LANGARIDS) was an Iranian Muslim dynasty ruled in Tarom, Samiran, Daylam, Gilan and subsequently Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
, Arran , some districts in Eastern Armenia
Armenia
in the 2nd half of the 10th century. They constitute the period in history that has been named the Iranian Intermezzo , a period that saw the rise of native Iranian dynasties during the 9th to the 11th centuries
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Sajid Dynasty
The SAJID DYNASTY (Persian : ساجیان‎‎), was a semi-independent Muslim dynasty that ruled from 889-890 until 929. Sajids ruled Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and parts Armenia
Armenia
first from Maragha and Barda and then from Ardabil
Ardabil
. The Sajids originated from the Central Asian province of Ushrusana and were of Iranian ( Sogdians ) descent. Muhammad ibn Abi'l-Saj Diwdad the son of Diwdad, the first Sajid ruler of Azerbaijan, was appointed as its ruler in 889 or 890. Muhammad's father Abi\'l-Saj Devdad had fought under the Ushrusanan prince Afshin Khaydar during the latter's final campaign against the rebel Babak Khorramdin in Azerbaijan, and later served the caliphs
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