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Romulus
Romulus
Romulus
(/ˈrɒmjələs/) was the legendary founder and first king of Rome. Various traditions attribute the establishment of many of Rome's oldest legal, political, religious, and social institutions to Romulus and his contemporaries
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Roman Magistrate
The Roman magistrates were elected officials in Ancient Rome. During the period of the Roman Kingdom, the King of Rome
King of Rome
was the principal executive magistrate.[1] His power, in practice, was absolute. He was the chief priest, lawgiver, judge, and the sole commander of the army.[1][2] When the king died, his power reverted to the Roman Senate, which then chose an Interrex to facilitate the election of a new king. During the transition from monarchy to republic, the constitutional balance of power shifted from the executive (the Roman king) to the Roman Senate. When the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
was founded in 509 BC, the powers that had been held by the king were transferred to the Roman consuls, of which two were to be elected each year
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Roman Censor
The censor was a magistrate in ancient Rome
Rome
who was responsible for maintaining the census, supervising public morality, and overseeing certain aspects of the government's finances.[1] The power of the censors is absolute: no magistrate can oppose their decisions, only another censor who succeeds them could cancel it. The censors' regulation of public morality is the origin of the modern meaning of the words "censor" and "censorship".[2]Contents1 Early history of the magistracy 2 Election 3 Attributes 4 Abolition 5 Duties5.1 Census5.1.1 Census
Census
beyond Rome 5.1.2 Other uses of census5.2 Regimen morum5.2.1 Punishments5.3 Administration of the finances of the state 5.4 Lustrum6 Census
Census
statistics6.1 Sources7 See also 8 References 9 External linksEarly history of the magistracy[edit] The census was first instituted by Servius
Servius
Tullius, sixth king of Rome
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Aedile
Aedile
Aedile
(Latin: aedīlis Latin
Latin
pronunciation: [ae̯ˈdiː.lɪs], from aedes, "temple edifice") was an office of the Roman Republic. Based in Rome, the aediles were responsible for maintenance of public buildings (aedēs) and regulation of public festivals. They also had powers to enforce public order. There were two pairs of aediles: the first were the "plebeian aediles" ( Latin
Latin
aediles plebis) and possession of this office was limited to plebeians; the other two were "curule aediles" ( Latin
Latin
aediles curules), open to both plebeians and patricians, in alternating years. An aedilis curulis was classified as a magister curulis. The office of the aedilis was generally held by young men intending to follow the cursus honorum to high political office, traditionally after their quaestorship but before their praetorship
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Promagistrate
In ancient Rome
Rome
a promagistrate (Latin: pro magistratu) was an ex consul or ex praetor whose imperium (the power to command an army) was extended at the end of his annual term of office or later. They were called proconsuls and propraetors. This was an innovation created during the Roman Republic. Initially it was intended to provide additional military commanders to support the armies of the consuls (the two annually elected heads of the Republic and its army) or to lead an additional army. With the acquisitions of territories outside Italy which were annexed as provinces, proconsuls and propraetors became provincial governors or administrators. A third type of promagistrate were the proquaestors.Contents1 History1.1 3rd century BC 1.2 1st century BC2 Quaestors 3 Praefecti 4 Non-Roman usage 5 Usage in the Roman Catholic Church 6 See also 7 NotesHistory[edit] The first type of promagistrate was the proconsul
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Roman Governor
A Roman governor
Roman governor
was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief administrator of Roman law
Roman law
throughout one or more of the many provinces constituting the Roman Empire. A Roman governor
Roman governor
is also known as a propraetor or proconsul. The generic term in Roman legal language was Rector provinciae, regardless of the specific titles, which also reflect the province's intrinsic and strategic status, and corresponding differences in authority. By the time of the early empire, there were two types of provinces — senatorial and imperial — and several types of governor would emerge
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Praetor
Praetor
Praetor
(Classical Latin: [ˈprajtoːr], also spelled prætor) was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army (in the field or, less often, before the army had been mustered); or, an elected magistratus (magistrate), assigned various duties (which varied at different periods in Rome's history). The functions of the magistracy, the praetura (praetorship), are described by the adjective:[1] the praetoria potestas (praetorian power), the praetorium imperium (praetorian authority), and the praetorium ius (praetorian law), the legal precedents established by the praetores (praetors)
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Roman Consul
A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (509 to 27 BC), and ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum (an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired). Each year, the citizens of Rome
Rome
elected two consuls to serve jointly for a one-year term. The consuls alternated in holding imperium each month, and a consul's imperium extended over Rome, Italy, and the provinces
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Roman Dictator
A dictator was a magistrate of the Roman Republic, entrusted with the full authority of the state to deal with a military emergency or to undertake a specific duty. All other magistrates were subordinate to his imperium, and the right of the plebeian tribunes to veto his actions or of the people to appeal from them was extremely limited. However, in order to prevent the dictatorship from threatening the state itself, severe limitations were placed upon its powers: a dictator could only act within his intended sphere of authority; and he was obliged to resign his office once his appointed task had been accomplished, or at the expiration of six months. Dictators were regularly appointed from the earliest period of the Republic down to the Second Punic War, but the magistracy then went into abeyance for over a century, until it was revived in a significantly modified form, first by Sulla, and then by Julius Caesar
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Roman Assemblies
The Roman Assemblies were institutions in ancient Rome. They functioned as the machinery of the Roman legislative branch, and thus (theoretically at least) passed all legislation. Since the assemblies operated on the basis of direct democracy, ordinary citizens, and not elected representatives, would cast all ballots. The assemblies were subject to strong checks on their power by the executive branch and by the Roman Senate. Laws were passed (and magistrates elected) by Curia (in the Curiate Assembly), Tribes (in the Tribal Assembly), and Centuries (in the Centuriate Assembly). When the city of Rome
Rome
was founded (traditionally dated at 753 BC), a senate and an assembly, the Curiate Assembly, were both created. The Curiate Assembly
Curiate Assembly
was the principal legislative assembly during the era of the Roman Kingdom. While its primary purpose was to elect new kings, it also possessed rudimentary legislative powers
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Magister Equitum
The Magister equitum, in English Master of the Horse
Master of the Horse
or Master of the Cavalry, was a Roman magistrate
Roman magistrate
appointed as lieutenant to a dictator. His nominal function was to serve as commander of the
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Constitution Of The Late Roman Empire
The constitution of the late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
was an unwritten set of guidelines and principles passed down, mainly through precedent, which defined the manner in which the late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
was governed.[1] As a matter of historical convention, the late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
emerged from the Roman Principate
Principate
(the early Roman Empire), with the accession of Diocletian
Diocletian
in AD 284, his reign marking the beginning of the Dominate.[2] The constitution of the Dominate
Dominate
ultimately recognized monarchy as the true source of power, and thus ended the fiction of dyarchy, in which emperor and Senate governed the empire together.[3] Diocletian's reforms to the imperial government finally ended the ruse that the old republican magistracies (e.g
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Constitution Of The Roman Empire
The Constitution of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
was an unwritten set of guidelines and principles passed down mainly through precedent.[1] After the fall of the Roman Republic, the constitutional balance of power shifted from the Roman Senate
Roman Senate
to the Roman Emperor. Beginning with the first emperor, Augustus, the emperor and the senate were theoretically two co-equal branches of government. In practice, however, the actual authority of the imperial Senate was negligible, as the emperor held the true power of the state. During the reign of the second emperor, Tiberius, many of the powers that had been held by the Roman assemblies
Roman assemblies
were transferred to the Senate.[2] The powers of an emperor existed by virtue of his legal standing
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Tribuni Militum Consulari Potestate
The tribuni militum consulari potestate ("military tribunes with consular power"), in English commonly also Consular Tribunes, were tribunes elected with consular power during the so-called "Conflict of the Orders" in the Roman Republic, starting in 444 BC and then continuously from 408 BC to 394 BC and again from 391 BC to 367 BC.Contents1 Origin and dissolution of the office 2 Consular Tribunes by year 3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesOrigin and dissolution of the office[edit] According to the histories of Livy
Livy
and Dionysius of Halicarnassus,[citation needed] the magistracy of the tribuni militum consulari potestate was create
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Roman Constitution
The Roman Constitution
Roman Constitution
was an uncodified set of guidelines and principles passed down mainly through precedent.[1] The Roman constitution was not formal or even official, largely unwritten and constantly evolving. Having those characteristics, it was therefore more like the British and United States
United States
common law system than a sovereign law system like the English Constitutions of Clarendon
Constitutions of Clarendon
and Great Charter
Great Charter
or the United States
United States
Constitution, even though the constitution's evolution through the years was often directed by passage of new laws and repeal of older ones. Concepts that originated in the Roman constitution live on in both forms of government to this day
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Triumvirate
A triumvirate (Latin: triumvirātus) is a political regime ruled or dominated by three powerful individuals known as triumvirs (Latin: triumviri). The arrangement can be formal or informal. Though the three are notionally equal, this is rarely the case in reality. The term can also be used to describe a state with three different military leaders who all claim to be the sole leader. In the context of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russia, the term troika (Russian for "group of three") is used for "triumvirate"
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