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Romulus
ROMULUS was the legendary founder and first king of Rome
Rome
. Various traditions attribute the establishment of many of Rome's oldest legal, political, religious, and social institutions to Romulus
Romulus
and his contemporaries. Although many of these traditions incorporate elements of folklore, and it is unclear to what extent a historical figure underlies the mythical Romulus, the events and institutions ascribed to him were central to the narrative of Rome's origins and cultural traditions
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Praetor
PRAETOR (Classical Latin: , also spelled PRæTOR) was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army (in the field or, less often, before the army had been mustered); or, an elected magistratus (magistrate), assigned various duties (which varied at different periods in Rome's history). The functions of the magistracy, the praetura (praetorship), are described by the adjective: the praetoria potestas (praetorian power), the praetorium imperium (praetorian authority), and the praetorium ius (praetorian law), the legal precedents established by the praetores (praetors). Praetorium, as a substantive , denoted the location from which the praetor exercised his authority, either the headquarters of his castra , the courthouse (tribunal) of his judiciary, or the city hall of his provincial governorship
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Dux
DUX (/dʌks, dʊks/ ; plural: duces) is Latin
Latin
for "leader" (from the noun dux, ducis, "leader, general") and later for duke and its variant forms (doge , duce , etc.). During the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, dux could refer to anyone who commanded troops, including foreign leaders, but was not a formal military rank. In writing his commentaries on the Gallic Wars , Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
uses the term only for Celtic generals, with one exception for a Roman commander who held no official rank. CONTENTS* 1 Roman Empire
Roman Empire
* 1.1 Original usage * 1.2 Change in usage * 1.3 The office under the Dominate * 2 Later developments * 3 Post-Roman uses * 3.1 Education * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 Sources * 8 External links ROMAN EMPIRE This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION
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Promagistrate
In ancient Rome
Rome
a PROMAGISTRATE ( Latin
Latin
: pro magistratu) was an ex consul or ex praetor whose imperium (the power to command an army ) was extended at the end of his annual term of office or later. They were called PROCONSULS and PROPRAETORS. This was an innovation created during the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
. Initially it was intended to provide additional military commanders to support the armies of the consuls (the two annually elected heads of the Republic and its army) or to lead an additional army. With the acquisitions of territories outside Italy which were annexed as provinces, proconsuls and propraetors became provincial governors or administrators. A third type of promagistrate were the PROQUAESTORS
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Roman Consul
A CONSUL was the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic , and the consulship was considered the highest level of the cursus honorum (an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired). Each year, two consuls were elected together, to serve for a one-year term. The consuls alternated in holding imperium each month, and a consul's imperium extended over Rome, Italy, and the provinces . However, after the establishment of the Empire (27 BC), the consuls became mere symbolic representatives of Rome’s republican heritage and held very little power and authority, with the Emperor acting as the supreme authority
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Roman Magistrate
The ROMAN MAGISTRATES were elected officials in Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
. During the period of the Roman Kingdom
Roman Kingdom
, the King of Rome
King of Rome
was the principal executive magistrate. His power, in practice, was absolute. He was the chief priest , lawgiver , judge , and the sole commander of the army . When the king died, his power reverted to the Roman Senate , which then chose an Interrex to facilitate the election of a new king. During the transition from monarchy to republic, the constitutional balance of power shifted from the executive (the Roman king ) to the Roman Senate. When the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
was founded in 509 BC, the powers that had been held by the king were transferred to the Roman consuls , of which two were to be elected each year
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Constitution Of The Late Roman Empire
The CONSTITUTION OF THE LATE ROMAN EMPIRE was an unwritten set of guidelines and principles passed down mainly through precedent which defined the manner in which the late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
was governed. As a matter of historical convention, the late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
emerged from the Roman Principate
Principate
(the early Roman Empire), in AD 284, with the accession of Diocletian
Diocletian
in 284, with his reign marking the beginning of the Dominate
Dominate
. The constitution of the Dominate
Dominate
ultimately recognized monarchy as the true source of power, and thus ended the fiction of dyarchy in which emperor and Senate governed the empire. Diocletian's reforms to the imperial government finally ended the fiction that the old republican magistracies (e.g
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Officium (Ancient Rome)
OFFICIUM (plural officia) is a Latin
Latin
word with various meanings in Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
, including "service", "(sense of) duty", "courtesy", "ceremony" and the like. It also translates the Greek kathekon and was used in later Latin
Latin
to render more modern offices. However, this article is mainly concerned with the meaning of "an office" (the modern word office derives from it) or "bureau" in the sense of a dignitary's staff of administrative and other collaborators, each of whom was called an officialis (hence the modern official ). The Notitia Dignitatum
Notitia Dignitatum
gives us uniquely detailed information, stemming from the very imperial chanceries, on the composition of the officia of many of the leading court, provincial, military and certain other officials of the two Roman empires c. AD 400
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Roman Assemblies
The ROMAN ASSEMBLIES were institutions in ancient Rome
Rome
. They functioned as the machinery of the Roman legislative branch, and thus (theoretically at least) passed all legislation. Since the assemblies operated on the basis of direct democracy , ordinary citizens, and not elected representatives, would cast all ballots. The assemblies were subject to strong checks on their power by the executive branch and by the Roman Senate
Roman Senate
. Laws were passed (and magistrates elected) by Curia (in the Curiate Assembly
Curiate Assembly
), Tribes (in the Tribal Assembly
Tribal Assembly
), and Centuries (in the Centuriate Assembly ). When the city of Rome
Rome
was founded (traditionally dated at 753 BC), a senate and an assembly, the Curiate Assembly
Curiate Assembly
, were both created
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Aedile
AEDILE ( Latin
Latin
: aedīlis Latin
Latin
pronunciation: , from aedes , "temple edifice") was an office of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
. Based in Rome
Rome
, the aediles were responsible for maintenance of public buildings (aedēs) and regulation of public festivals . They also had powers to enforce public order. There were two pairs of aediles: the first were the "plebeian aediles" ( Latin
Latin
aediles plebis) and possession of this office was limited to plebeians; the other two were "curule aediles" (Latin aediles curules), open to both plebeians and patricians, in alternating years. An aedilis curulis was classified as a magister curulis. The office of the aedilis was generally held by young men intending to follow the cursus honorum to high political office, traditionally after their quaestorship but before their praetorship
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Tribune
TRIBUNUS, in English TRIBUNE, was the title of various elected officials in Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
. The two most important were the tribunes of the plebs and the military tribunes . For most of Roman history, a college of ten tribunes of the plebs acted as a check on the authority of the senate and the annual magistrates , holding the power of ius intercessionis to intervene on behalf of the plebeians , and veto unfavourable legislation. There were also military tribunes , who commanded portions of the Roman army
Roman army
, subordinate to the higher magistrates, such as the consuls and praetors , promagistrates , and their legates . Various officers within the Roman army
Roman army
were also known as tribunes. The title was also used for several other positions and classes in the course of Roman history
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Tribuni Militum Consulari Potestate
The TRIBUNI MILITUM CONSULARI POTESTATE ("military tribunes with consular power"), in English commonly also CONSULAR TRIBUNES, were tribunes elected with consular power during the so-called "Conflict of the Orders " in the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, starting in 444 BC and then continuously from 408 BC to 394 BC and again from 391 BC to 367 BC
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Triumvirate
A TRIUMVIRATE ( Latin
Latin
: triumvirātus) is a political regime ruled or dominated by three powerful individuals known as TRIUMVIRS ( Latin
Latin
: triumviri). The arrangement can be formal or informal. Though the three are notionally equal, this is rarely the case in reality. The term can also be used to describe a state with three different military leaders who all claim to be the sole leader. In the context of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russia, the term TROIKA (Russian for "group of three") is used for "triumvirate". Another synonym is TRIARCHY
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Decemviri
The DECEMVIRI or DECEMVIRS ( Latin
Latin
for "ten men") were any of several 10-man commissions established by the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
. The most important were those of the two DECEMVIRATES, formally the "Decemvirs Writing the Laws with Consular Imperium " ( Latin
Latin
: Decemviri
Decemviri
Legibus Scribundis Consulari Imperio) who reformed and codified Roman law during the Conflict of the Orders
Conflict of the Orders
between ancient Rome
Rome
's patrician aristocracy and plebeian commoners
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Magister Equitum
The MAGISTER EQUITUM, in English MASTER OF THE HORSE or MASTER OF THE CAVALRY, was a Roman magistrate appointed as lieutenant to a dictator . His nominal function was to serve as commander of the Roman cavalry in time of war, but just as a dictator could be nominated to respond to other crises, so the magister equitum could operate independently of the cavalry; like the dictator, the appointment of a magister equitum served both military and political purposes. CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Nature of the office * 3 History * 4 List of magistri equitum * 5 Notes * 6 References ORIGINIn the time of the Roman Kingdom
Roman Kingdom
, the king himself would lead the cavalry into battle, or else delegate this authority to his chief advisor, the Tribune
Tribune
of the Celeres , the cavalry unit that also served as the king's personal bodyguard
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Roman Dictator
A DICTATOR was a magistrate of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, entrusted with the full authority of the state to deal with a military emergency or to undertake a specific duty. All other magistrates were subordinate to his imperium , and the right of the plebeian tribunes to veto his actions or of the people to appeal from them was extremely limited. However, in order to prevent the dictatorship from threatening the state itself, severe limitations were placed upon its powers: a dictator could only act within his intended sphere of authority; and he was obliged to resign his office once his appointed task had been accomplished, or at the expiration of six months
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