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Roman Emperor
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. Often when a given Roman is described as becoming "emperor" in English, it reflects his taking of the title Augustus
Augustus
or Caesar. Another title often used was imperator, originally a military honorific. Early Emperors also used the title princeps (first citizen). Emperors frequently amassed republican titles, notably Princeps senatus, Consul
Consul
and Pontifex Maximus. The legitimacy of an emperor's rule depended on his control of the army and recognition by the Senate; an emperor would normally be proclaimed by his troops, or invested with imperial titles by the Senate, or both
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General Officer
A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.[1] The term "general" is used in two ways: as the generic title for all grades of general officer and as a specific rank. It originates in the 16th century, as a shortening of captain general, which rank was taken from Middle French capitaine général. The adjective general had been affixed to officer designations since the late medieval period to indicate relative superiority or an extended jurisdiction. Today, the title of "General" is known in some countries as a four-star rank. However different countries use different systems of stars for senior ranks
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Louvre
8.1 million (2017)Ranked 1st nationally Ranked 1st globallyDirector Jean-Luc MartinezCurator Marie-Laure de RochebrunePublic transit accessPalais Royal – Musée du Louvre
Musée du Louvre
Louvre-Rivoli Website www.louvre.frThe Louvre
Louvre
(US: /ˈluːv(rə)/),[1] or the Louvre
Louvre
Museum (French: Musée du Louvre
Musée du Louvre
[myze dy luvʁ] ( listen)), is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France. A central landmark of the city, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine
Seine
in the city's 1st arrondissement (district or ward)
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Fall Of Constantinople
Ottomans Land forces: [e] 50,000–80,000[6]:101 [7]:49[8]:52[9]:618[10][page needed][11][page needed][f]100,000[12]:755–160,000[13][page needed][14][page needed]–200,000[3][page needed]70 cannons[15]:139–14014 large and 56 small caliber)[16]:179Naval forces:70 ships,[10]:4420 galleys[17] 90 – 126 ships [18]Byzantines Land forces:7,000–10,000[5]:85[12]:755[19]:343[12]:755[20]:46[21][page needed]-12,000,[18] 600 Ottoman defectors[22]Naval forces:26 ships[10]:45[g]Casualties and lossesUnknown but heavy[24][4][page needed]4,000 killed in total (including combatants and civilians)[10]:37–8 30,000 enslaved or deported[24]^ More specifically, the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
under the Palaiologos dynasty ^ The Venetians decided to make a peace treaty with the Ottomans in September 1451, because they were on good terms already with the Ottomans and they did not want to ruin a relationship
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Military Of Ancient Rome
The military of ancient Rome, according to Titus Livius, one of the more illustrious historians of Rome over the centuries, was a key element in the rise of Rome over “above seven hundred years”[1] from a small settlement in Latium
Latium
to the capital of an empire governing a wide region around the shores of the Mediterranean, or, as the Romans themselves said, ‘’mare nostrum’’, “our sea.” Livy
Livy
asserts”..
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After Christ
Common Era or Current Era (CE)[1] is a name for a calendar era widely used around the world today. The era preceding CE is known as before the Common or Current Era (BCE). The Current Era notation system can be used as an alternative to the Dionysian era
Dionysian era
system, which distinguishes eras as AD (anno Domini, "[the] year of [the] Lord")[2] and BC ("before Christ"). The two notation systems are numerically equivalent; thus "2018 CE" corresponds to "AD 2018" and "400 BCE" corresponds to "400 BC".[2][3][4][a] Both notations refer to the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
(and its predecessor, the Julian calendar)
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Before Christ
The terms anno Domini[a][1][2] (AD) and before Christ[b][3][4][5] (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. The term anno Domini is Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
and means "in the year of the Lord",[6] but is often presented using "our Lord" instead of "the Lord",[7][8] taken from the full original phrase "anno Domini nostri Jesu Christi", which translates to "in the year of our Lord Jesus
Jesus
Christ". This calendar era is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth of Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth, with AD counting years from the start of this epoch, and BC denoting years before the start of the era. There is no year zero in this scheme, so the year AD 1 immediately follows the year 1 BC
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Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire (/ˈɒtəmən/; Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye[dn 5]), also historically known in Western Europe
Europe
as the Turkish Empire[8] or simply Turkey,[9] was a state that controlled much of southeastern Europe, western Asia and northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia
Anatolia
in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman.[10] After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire
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Empire Of Trebizond
The Empire of Trebizond
Empire of Trebizond
or the Trapezuntine Empire was a monarchy that flourished during the 13th through 15th centuries, consisting of the far northeastern corner of Anatolia
Anatolia
and the southern Crimea. The empire was first formed as a revolt against the rule of the Angelos dynasty of the Byzantine Empire, which had deposed Emperor Andronikos I Komnenos
Komnenos
in 1185
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Caesaropapism
Caesaropapism
Caesaropapism
/ˌsiːzəroʊˈpeɪpɪzəm/ is the idea of combining the power of secular government with the religious power, or of making secular authority superior to the spiritual authority of the Church; especially concerning the connection of the Church with government. Justus Henning Böhmer
Justus Henning Böhmer
(1674–1749) may have originally coined the term caesaropapism (Cäseropapismus).[1] Max Weber
Max Weber
(1864-1920) wrote: "a secular, caesaropapist ruler..
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Cassius Dio
Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius[note 2] (/ˈkæʃəs ˈdiːoʊ/; c. 155–235)[note 3] was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek origin. He published 80 volumes of history on Ancient Rome, beginning with the arrival of Aeneas
Aeneas
in Italy. The volumes documented the subsequent founding of Rome (753 BC), the formation of the Republic (509 BC), and the creation of the Empire (31 BC), up until 229 AD. Written in Ancient Greek over 22 years, Dio's work covers approximately 1,000 years of history. Many of his 80 books have survived intact, or as fragments, providing modern scholars with a detailed perspective on Roman history.Contents1 Biography 2 Roman History 3 Literary style 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksBiography[edit] Lucius Cassius Dio was the son of Cassius Apronianus, a Roman senator, who was born and raised at Nicaea
Nicaea
in Bithynia
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Appian
Appian
Appian
of Alexandria
Alexandria
(/ˈæpiən/; Greek: Ἀππιανὸς Ἀλεξανδρεύς Appianós Alexandréus; Latin: Appianus Alexandrinus; c. AD 95 – c. AD 165) was a Greek historian with Roman citizenship who flourished during the reigns of Emperors of Rome
Rome
Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius. He was born c. 95 in Alexandria. After holding the chief offices in the province of Aegyptus (Egypt), he went to Rome
Rome
c. 120, where he practised as an advocate, pleading cases before the emperors (probably as advocatus fisci).[1] It was in 147 at the earliest that he was appointed to the office of procurator, probably in Egypt, on the recommendation of his friend Marcus Cornelius Fronto, a well-known litterateur
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Basileus
Basileus
Basileus
(Greek: βασιλεύς)[n 1] is a Greek term and title that has signified various types of monarchs in history. In the English-speaking world it is perhaps most widely understood to mean "king" or "emperor". The title was used by the Byzantine emperors, and has a longer history of use by sovereigns and other persons of authority in ancient Greece, as well as for the kings of modern Greece. The feminine forms are basileia (βασίλεια), basilis (βασιλίς), basilissa (βασίλισσα), or the archaic basilinna (βασιλίννα), meaning "queen" or "empress".[1]Contents1 Etymology 2 Ancient Greece2.1 Original senses encountered on clay tablets2.1.1 Basileus
Basileus
vs
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Vexillum
The vexillum (/vɛkˈsɪləm/; plural vexilla) was a flag-like object used as a military standard by units in the Ancient Roman army.Contents1 Use in Roman army 2 General and later use 3 See also3.1 In taxonomy4 ReferencesUse in Roman army[edit] The word vexillum is a diminutive of the Latin word, velum, meaning a sail, which confirms the historical evidence (from coins and sculpture) that vexilla were literally "little sails": flag-like standards. In the vexillum, the cloth was draped from a horizontal crossbar suspended from the staff. That is unlike most modern flags in which the 'hoist' of the cloth is attached directly to the vertical staff. The bearer of a vexillum was known as a vexillarius or vexillifer.[1] Just as in the case of the regimental colors or flag of Early Modern Western regiments, the vexillum was a treasured symbol of the military unit that it represented and it was closely defended in combat
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Princeps
Princeps (plural: principes) is a Latin
Latin
word meaning "first in time or order; the first, foremost,[1] chief, the most eminent, distinguished, or noble; the first man, first person."[2] As a title, "princeps" originated in the Roman Republic wherein the leading member of the Senate was designated princeps senatus.[3] It is primarily associated with the Roman emperors as an unofficial title first adopted by Augustus
Augustus
in 23 BC. Its use in this context continued until the reign of Diocletian
Diocletian
at the end of the third century. He preferred the title of dominus, meaning "lord" or "master". As a result, the Roman Empire from Augustus
Augustus
to Diocletian
Diocletian
is termed the "principate" (principatus) and from Diocletian
Diocletian
onwards as the "dominate" (dominatus)
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Josephus
Titus
Titus
Flavius Josephus
Josephus
(/dʒoʊˈsiːfəs/;[1] Greek: Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – c. 100),[2][page needed] born Yosef ben Matityahu (Hebrew: יוסף הכהן בן מתתיהו‬, Yosef ben Matityahu; Greek: Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς),[3][4] was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry. He initially fought against the Romans during the First Jewish–Roman War as head of Jewish forces in Galilee, until surrendering in 67 CE to Roman forces led by Vespasian
Vespasian
after the six-week siege of Jotapata. Josephus
Josephus
claimed the Jewish Messianic prophecies that initiated the First Roman-Jewish War made reference to Vespasian
Vespasian
becoming Emperor of Rome
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