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Roman Withdrawal From Britain
The end of Roman rule in Britain was the transition from Roman Britain to post-Roman Britain. Roman rule ended in different parts of Britain at different times, and under different circumstances. In 383, the usurper Magnus Maximus
Magnus Maximus
withdrew troops from northern and western Britain, probably leaving local warlords in charge. Around 410, the Romano-British expelled the magistrates of the usurper Constantine III, ostensibly in response to his failures to use the Roman garrison he had stripped from Britain to protect the island. Roman Emperor Honorius replied to a request for assistance with the Rescript
Rescript
of Honorius, telling the Roman cities to see to their own defence, a tacit acceptance of temporary British self-government. Honorius was fighting a large-scale war in Italy
Italy
against the Visigoths under their leader Alaric, with Rome
Rome
itself under siege
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History Of The British Isles
The history of the British Isles
British Isles
has witnessed intermittent periods of competition and cooperation between the people that occupy the various parts of Great Britain, the Isle of Man, Ireland, the Bailiwick of Guernsey, the Bailiwick of Jersey
Bailiwick of Jersey
and the smaller adjacent islands, which together make up the British Isles. Today, the British Isles
British Isles
contain two sovereign states: the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
and the United Kingdom. There are also three Crown dependencies: Guernsey, Jersey
Jersey
and the Isle of Man. The United Kingdom comprises England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, each country having its own history, with all but Northern Ireland
Ireland
having been independent states at one point
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Ireland In The Middle Ages
Ireland
Ireland
in the Middle Ages:History of Ireland
Ireland
(400–800),
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England In The High Middle Ages
England in the High Middle Ages
England in the High Middle Ages
includes the history of England between the Norman Conquest in 1066 and the death of King John, considered by some to be the last of the Angevin kings of England, in 1216. A disputed succession and victory at the Battle of Hastings
Battle of Hastings
led to the conquest of England by William of Normandy in 1066. This linked the crown of England with possessions in France and brought a new aristocracy to the country that dominated landholding, government and the church. They brought with them the French language and maintained their rule through a system of castles and the introduction of a feudal system of landholding. By the time of William's death in 1087, England formed the largest part of an Anglo-Norman empire, ruled by nobles with landholdings across England, Normandy and Wales
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England In The Late Middle Ages
England in the Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
concerns the history of England during the late medieval period, from the thirteenth century, the end of the Angevins, and the accession of Henry III – considered by many to mark the start of the Plantagenet
Plantagenet
dynasty – until the accession to the throne of the Tudor dynasty
Tudor dynasty
in 1485, which is often taken as the most convenient marker for the end of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the start of the English Renaissance
English Renaissance
and early modern Britain. At the accession of Henry III only a remnant of English holdings remained in Gascony, for which English kings had to pay homage to the French, and the barons were in revolt. Royal authority was restored by his son who inherited the throne in 1272 as Edward I. He reorganized his possessions, and gained control of Wales and most of Scotland
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Scotland In The Middle Ages
Scotland
Scotland
in the Middle Ages concerns the history of Scotland
Scotland
from the departure of the Romans to the adoption of major aspects of the Renaissance
Renaissance
in the early sixteenth century. From the fifth century northern Britain was divided into a series of petty kingdoms. Of these the four most important to emerge were the Picts, the Gaels of Dál Riata, the Britons of Strathclyde and the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
kingdom of Bernicia, later taken over by Northumbria. After the arrival of the Vikings
Vikings
in the late eighth century, Scandinavian rulers and colonies were established along parts of the coasts and in the islands. In the ninth century the Scots and Picts
Picts
combined under the House of Alpin to form a single Kingdom of Alba, with a Pictish
Pictish
base and dominated by Gaelic culture
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Scotland In The Early Middle Ages
Scotland
Scotland
was divided into a series of kingdoms in the early Middle Ages, i.e. between the end of Roman authority in southern and central Britain from around 400 CE and the rise of the kingdom of Alba
Alba
in 900 CE. Of these, the four most important to emerge were the Picts, the Scots of Dál Riata, the Britons of Alt Clut, and the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia. After the arrival of the Vikings
Vikings
in the late 8th century, Scandinavian rulers and colonies were established on the islands and along parts of the coasts. In the 9th century, the House of Alpin combined the lands of the Scots and Picts
Picts
to form a single kingdom which constituted the basis of the kingdom of Scotland. Scotland
Scotland
has an extensive coastline and vast areas of difficult terrain and poor agricultural land
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Scotland In The High Middle Ages
The High Middle Ages of Scotland
Scotland
encompass Scotland
Scotland
in the era between the death of Domnall II in 900 AD and the death of King Alexander III in 1286, which was an indirect cause of the Scottish Wars of Independence. At the close of the ninth century, various competing kingdoms occupied the territory of modern Scotland. Scandinavian influence was dominant in the northern and western islands, Brythonic culture in the southwest, the Anglo-Saxon or English Kingdom of Northumbria
Kingdom of Northumbria
in the southeast and the Pictish and Gaelic Kingdom of Alba
Kingdom of Alba
in the east, north of the River Forth
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Scotland In The Late Middle Ages
Scotland
Scotland
in the Late Middle Ages, between the deaths of Alexander III in 1286 and James IV in 1513, established its independence from England under figures including William Wallace
William Wallace
in the late 13th century and Robert Bruce in the 14th century. In the 15th century under the Stewart Dynasty, despite a turbulent political history, the Crown gained greater political control at the expense of independent lords and regained most of its lost territory to approximately the modern borders of the country
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Wales In The Middle Ages
Wales
Wales
in the Middle Ages covers the history of the region that is now called Wales, from the departure of the Romans in the early fifth century, until the annexation of Wales
Wales
into the Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
in the early sixteenth century.Contents1 Early Middle Ages: 411–10661.1 Rise of Gwynedd: 700–10662 High Middle Ages: 1067–1283 3 Late Middle Ages: 1283–1542 4 See also 5 Notes 6 ReferencesEarly Middle Ages: 411–1066[edit] Main article: Wales
Wales
in the Early Middle Ages Further information: Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain
Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain
and Sub-Roman Britain When the Roman garrison of Britain was withdrawn in 410, the various British states were left self-governing
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Wales In The Early Middle Ages
Wales
Wales
in the early Middle Ages covers the time between the Roman departure from Wales
Wales
c. 383 and the rise of Merfyn Frych
Merfyn Frych
to the throne of Gwynedd c. 825. In that time there was a gradual consolidation of power into increasingly hierarchical kingdoms. The end of the early Middle Ages was the time that the Welsh language
Welsh language
transitioned from the Primitive Welsh spoken throughout the era into Old Welsh, and the time when the modern England–Wales border
England–Wales border
would take its near-final form, a line broadly followed by Offa's Dyke, a late eighth-century earthwork. Successful unification into something recognisable as a Welsh state would come in the next era under the descendants of Merfyn Frych. Wales
Wales
was rural throughout the era, characterised by small settlements called trefi
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Wales In The High Middle Ages
Wales
Wales
in the High Middle Ages covers the 11th to 13th centuries in Welsh history. Beginning shortly before the Norman invasion of the 1060s and ending with the Conquest of Wales by Edward I
Conquest of Wales by Edward I
between 1278 and 1283, it was a period of significant political, cultural and social change for the country. End of the first millennium[edit] By the later centuries of the first millennium, according to Wendy Davies, a clearer pattern of development is seen, and the expansion and subsequent domination of the Welsh Kingdom of Gwynedd, a province of north-west Wales, is fairly well-established. The aforementioned kingdoms of the south-east seem to have remained relatively isolated until the eleventh century (102). Throughout this period, the English Saxons
Saxons
exerted some influence over Wales, if only by settlement at times
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Wales In The Late Middle Ages
Wales
Wales
in the Late Middle Ages covers the period from the death of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd
Llywelyn ap Gruffudd
in late 1282 to the incorporation of Wales
Wales
into the Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
by the Laws in Wales
Wales
Acts 1535-1542.Contents1 Death of Llywelyn 2 King Edward I and rebellions 3 The Black Death 4 Glyndŵr's rebellion 5 Wars of the Roses 6 Annexation to England 7 Notes 8 ReferencesDeath of Llywelyn[edit] See also: Conquest of Wales
Wales
by Edward I After the death of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, his brother Dafydd ap Gruffydd carried on resistance for a few months, but was never able to control any large area. He was captured and executed by hanging, drawing and quartering at Shrewsbury in 1283. King Edward I of England now had complete control of Wales
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History Of Ireland (400–800)
The early medieval history of Ireland, often called Early Christian Ireland, spans the 5th to 8th centuries, from the gradual emergence out of the protohistoric period ( Ogham inscriptions
Ogham inscriptions
in Primitive Irish, mentions in Greco-Roman ethnography) to the beginning of the Viking Age. The period notably includes the Hiberno-Scottish mission of Christianised
Christianised
Ireland
Ireland
to regions of pagan Britain and the spread of Irish cultural influence to Continental Europe.[1]Contents1 Overview 2 Early Christian history2.1 Ecclesiastical history 2.2 Political history3 See also 4 References 5 Bibliography 6 External linksOverview[edit] At the start of the period, Ireland
Ireland
had emerged from a mysterious decline that archaeological evidence suggests had hit population levels and standards of living from c
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England In The Middle Ages
England
England
in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
concerns the history of England
England
during the medieval period, from the end of the 5th century through to the start of the Early Modern period in 1485. When England
England
emerged from the collapse of the Roman Empire, the economy was in tatters and many of the towns abandoned. After several centuries of Germanic immigration, new identities and cultures began to emerge, developing into predatory kingdoms that competed for power. A rich artistic culture flourished under the Anglo-Saxons, producing epic poems such as Beowulf
Beowulf
and sophisticated metalwork. The Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
converted to Christianity
Christianity
in the 7th century and a network of monasteries and convents was built across England
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History Of Ireland (800–1169)
The history of Ireland
Ireland
800–1169 covers the period in the history of Ireland
Ireland
from the first Viking
Viking
raids to the Norman invasion. The first two centuries of this period are characterised by Viking
Viking
raids and the subsequent Norse settlements along the coast. Viking
Viking
ports were established at Dublin, Wexford, Waterford, Cork and Limerick, which became the first large towns in Ireland. Ireland
Ireland
consisted of many semi-independent túatha, and during the entire period, attempts were made by various factions to gain political control over the whole of the island. For the first two centuries of this period, this was mainly a rivalry between putative High Kings of Ireland
Ireland
from the northern and southern branches of the Uí Néill
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