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Roman Empire
Mediolanum
Mediolanum
(286–402, Western) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna
Ravenna
(402–476, Western) Nicomedia
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List Of Countries By Population
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population. It includes sovereign states, inhabited dependent territories and, in some cases, constituent countries of sovereign states, with inclusion within the list being primarily based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1. For instance, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is considered as a single entity while the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
are considered separately. In addition, this list includes certain states with limited recognition not found in ISO 3166-1. The population figures do not reflect the practice of countries that report significantly different populations of citizens domestically and overall
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List Of Countries And Dependencies By Area
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area. Entries in this list, include, but are not limited to, those in the ISO standard 3166-1, which includes sovereign states and dependent territories
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Ancient Greek Language
The Ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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Mixed Government
Mixed government (or a mixed constitution) is a form of government that combines elements of democracy (polity), aristocracy, and monarchy, making impossible their respective degenerations (conceived as anarchy (mob rule), oligarchy and tyranny).[1] The idea was popularized during classical antiquity in order to describe the stability, the innovation and the success of the republic as a form of government developed under the Roman constitution. Unlike classical democracy, aristocracy or monarchy, under a mixed government rulers are elected by citizens rather than acquiring their positions by inheritance or sortition (at the Greco-Roman time, sortition was conventionally regarded as the principal characteristic of classical democracy[2]). The concept of a mixed government was studied during the Renaissance and the Age of Reason, by Machiavelli, Vico, Kant, Hobbes and others. It was, and is, a very important theory among supporters of republicanism
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Syracuse, Sicily
Syracuse (/ˈsɪrəˌkjuːs, -ˌkjuːz/; Italian: Siracusa, pronounced [siraˈkuːza] ( listen); Sicilian: Sarausa/Seragusa; Latin: Syrācūsae; Ancient Greek: Συράκουσαι, Syrakousai;[3] Medieval Greek: Συρακοῦσαι) is a historic city on the island of Sicily, the capital of the Italian province of Syracuse. The city is notable for its rich Greek history, culture, amphitheatres, architecture, and as the birthplace of the preeminent mathematician and engineer Archimedes.[4] This 2,700-year-old city played a key role in ancient times, when it was one of the major powers of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world. Syracuse is located in the southeast corner of the island of Sicily, next to the Gulf of Syracuse beside the Ionian Sea. The city was founded by Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Corinthians and Teneans[5] and became a very powerful city-state
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Aureus
The aureus (pl. aurei — "golden") was a gold coin of ancient Rome originally valued at 25 pure silver denarii. The aureus was regularly issued from the 1st century BC to the beginning of the 4th century AD, when it was replaced by the solidus. The aureus was about the same size as the denarius, but heavier due to the higher density of gold (as opposed to that of silver.) Before the time of Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
the aureus was struck infrequently, probably because gold was seen as a mark of un-Roman luxury. Caesar struck the coin more often, and standardized the weight at 1 40 displaystyle tfrac 1 40 of a Roman pound
Roman pound
(about 8 grams). Augustus
Augustus
(r
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Basil II
Basil II (Greek: Βασίλειος Β΄, Basileios II; 958 – 15 December 1025) was a Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
from the Macedonian dynasty who reigned from 10 January 976 to 15 December 1025. He was known in his time as Basil the Porphyrogenitus
Porphyrogenitus
and Basil the Young to distinguish him from his supposed ancestor, Basil I the Macedonian. He was the second longest reigning emperor after his brother Constantine VIII
Constantine VIII
whom he named co-emperor in 962, but outlived him by 3 years. The early years of his long reign were dominated by civil war against powerful generals from the Anatolian aristocracy. Following their submission, Basil oversaw the stabilization and expansion of the eastern frontier of the Byzantine Empire, and above all, the final and complete subjugation of Bulgaria, the Empire's foremost European foe, after a prolonged struggle
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Solidus (coin)
The solidus ( Latin
Latin
for "solid"; pl. solidi), nomisma (Greek: νόμισμα, nómisma, lit. "coin"), or bezant was originally a relatively pure gold coin issued in the Late Roman Empire. Under Constantine, who introduced it on a wide scale, it had a weight of about 4.5 grams. It was largely replaced in Western Europe by Pepin the Short's currency reform, which introduced the silver-based pound/shilling/penny system, under which the shilling (Latin: solidus) functioned as a unit of account equivalent to 12 pence, eventually developing into the French sou. In Eastern Europe, the nomisma was gradually debased by the Byzantine emperors until it was abolished by Alexius I
Alexius I
in 1092, who replaced it with the hyperpyron, which also came to be known as a "bezant"
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Vassal
A vassal[1] is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe. The obligations often included military support and mutual protection, in exchange for certain privileges, usually including land held as a tenant or fief.[2] The term is applied to similar arrangements in other feudal societies. In contrast, fealty (fidelitas) was sworn, unconditional loyalty to a monarch.[3]Contents1 Western vassalage 2 Difference between "vassal" and "vassal state" 3 Feudal
Feudal
Japanese equivalents 4 See also4.1 Similar terms5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksWestern vassalage[edit] In fully developed vassalage, the lord and the vassal would take part in a commendation ceremony composed of two parts, the homage and the fealty, including the use of Christian sacraments to show its sacred importance
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Vexilloid
"Vexilloid" is a loose term used to describe flag-like (vexillary) objects used by countries, organisations or individuals as a form of representation other than flags. American vexillologist Whitney Smith coined the term in 1958, defining it as:An object which functions as a flag but differs from it in some respect, usually appearance. Vexilloids are characteristic of traditional societies and often consist of a staff with an emblem, such as a carved animal, at the top."Vexilloid" can be used in a broader sense of any banner (vexillary object) which is not a flag (that is, taking only Smith's first sentence into account)
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Nicene Christianity
Nicene Christianity
Christianity
refers to Christian doctrinal traditions that adhere to the Nicene Creed, which was originally formulated at the First Council of Nicaea
First Council of Nicaea
in 325 AD and finished at the First Council of Constantinople in AD 381.[1] It is much more commonly referred to as mainstream Christianity.[2] The main rival doctrine of Nicene Christianity
Christianity
at the time was Arian Christianity, which ceased to exist during the 7th century AD with the conversion of the Gothic kingdoms to Nicene Christianity. The main points of dissent centered on Christology. Nicene Christianity considers Christ to be divine and co-eternal with God the Father, while Arian Christianity
Christianity
considered Christ to be the first created being, and inferior to God the Father
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Sestertius
The sestertius (plural sestertii), or sesterce (plural sesterces), was an ancient Roman coin. During the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
it was a small, silver coin issued only on rare occasions. During the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
it was a large brass coin. The name sestertius means "two and one half", referring to its nominal value of two and a half asses (a bronze Roman coin, singular as), a value that was useful for commerce because it was one quarter of a denarius, a coin worth ten asses. The name is derived from semis, "half" and "tertius", "third", in which "third" refers to the third as: the sestertius was worth two full asses and half of a third. English-language sources routinely use the original Latin form sestertius, plural sestertii; but older literature frequently uses sesterce, plural sesterces, terce being the English equivalent of tertius
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Empire Of Trebizond
The Empire of Trebizond
Empire of Trebizond
or the Trapezuntine Empire was a monarchy that flourished during the 13th through 15th centuries, consisting of the far northeastern corner of Anatolia
Anatolia
and the southern Crimea. The empire was first formed as a revolt against the rule of the Angelos dynasty of the Byzantine Empire, which had deposed Emperor Andronikos I Komnenos
Komnenos
in 1185
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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Nicomedia
Nicomedia
Nicomedia
(/ˌnɪkəˈmiːdiə/;[1] Greek: Νικομήδεια, Nikomedeia; modern İzmit) was an ancient Greek city in what is now Turkey.Contents1 History1.1 Persecutions of 303 1.2 Later Empire2 Infrastructure 3 Notable natives and residents 4 Remains 5 See also 6 ReferencesHistory[edit] It was founded in 712/11 BC as a Megarian
Megarian
colony and was originally known as Astacus (/ˈæstəkəs/; Ancient Greek: Ἀστακός, "lobster").[2] After being destroyed by Lysimachus,[3] it was rebuilt by Nicomedes I of Bithynia in 264 BC under the name of Nicomedia, and has ever since been one of the most important cities in northwestern Asia Minor. The great military commander Hannibal
Hannibal
Barca came to Nicomedia
Nicomedia
in his final years and committed suicide in nearby Libyssa (Diliskelesi, Gebze)
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