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Rollo
Rollo
Rollo
or Gaange Rolf[1] (Norman: Rou; Old Norse: Hrólfr; French: Rollon; c. 846 – c. 930 AD) was a Viking
Viking
who became the first ruler of Normandy, a region of France. He is sometimes called the 1st Duke of Normandy. His Scandinavian name Rolf was extended to Gaange Rolf because he became too heavy as an adult for a horse to carry, therefore he had to walk ("gaa" in older Dano-Norwegian). Rollo emerged as the outstanding personality among the Norsemen
Norsemen
who had secured a permanent foothold on Frankish soil in the valley of the lower Seine
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Goffredo Malaterra
Gaufredo (or Geoffrey, or Goffredo) Malaterra was an eleventh-century Benedictine monk and historian, possibly of Norman origin.[1] He travelled to the southern Italian peninsula, passing some time in Apulia before entering the monastery of Sant'Agata at Catania, on the isle of Sicily. Malaterra indicates that, prior to his arrival in Catania, he had spent an undefined period away from monastic life, in the worldly service of "Martha".[2]Contents1 Background 2 De rebus gestis Rogerii et Roberti 3 References 4 SourcesBackground[edit] Little is known of Geoffrey before he became a monk in Sicily. He writes in the dedication of his history that he previously served the clergy in some secular capacity, and that he came from "a region on the other side of the mountains," which is generally seen as a reference to the Alps
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Gesta Danorum
Gesta Danorum
Gesta Danorum
("Deeds of the Danes") is a patriotic work of Danish history, by the 13th century author Saxo Grammaticus
Saxo Grammaticus
("Saxo the Literate", literally "the Grammarian"). It is the most ambitious literary undertaking of medieval Denmark
Denmark
and is an essential source for the nation's early history. It is also one of the oldest known written documents about the history of Estonia and Latvia. Consisting of sixteen books written in Latin
Latin
on the invitation of Archbishop
Archbishop
Absalon, Gesta Danorum
Gesta Danorum
describes Danish history and to some degree Scandinavian history in general, from prehistory to the late 12th century
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Brigandage
Brigandage
Brigandage
is the life and practice of highway robbery and plunder.[1] It is practiced by a brigand, a person who usually lives in a gang and lives by pillage and robbery.[2] The brigand is an outlaw who conducts warfare after the manner of an irregular or partisan soldier by skirmishes and surprises, who makes the war support itself by plunder, by extortion, by capturing prisoners and holding them to ransom, who enforces his demands by violence, and kills the prisoners who cannot pay.[3][4]Contents1 Etymology 2 Laws of war 3 Resistance 4 Causes 5 Terrain 6 Historical examples6.1 France 6.2 Greece and the Balkans 6.3 India 6.4 Italy 6.5 Mexico 6.6 Spain 6.7 United States7 See also 8 Notes 9 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The English word brigant (also brigaunt) was introduced as early as 1400, via Old French
Old French
brigand from Italian brigante "trooper, skirmisher, foot soldier"
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Norman Conquest Of Southern Italy
Timeline Italy
Italy
portalv t eThe Norman conquest of southern Italy
Italy
spanned most of the 11th and 12th centuries, involving many battles and independent conquerors. Only later were these territories in southern Italy
Italy
united as the Kingdom of Sicily, which included the island of Sicily, the southern third of the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
(except Benevento, which was briefly held twice), the archipelago of Malta
Malta
and parts of North Africa. Itinerant Norman forces arrived in the Mezzogiorno
Mezzogiorno
as mercenaries in the service of Lombard and Byzantine factions, communicating news swiftly back home about opportunities in the Mediterranean
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Kingdom Of Sicily
the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
(1194–1254) (also with the Kingdom of Jerusalem: 1225–1228) the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
(1412–1516) the
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Principality Of Antioch
The Principality of Antioch
Antioch
was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade
First Crusade
which included parts of modern-day Turkey
Turkey
and Syria. The principality was much smaller than the County of Edessa
County of Edessa
or the Kingdom of Jerusalem. It extended around the northeastern edge of the Mediterranean, bordering the County of Tripoli
County of Tripoli
to the south, Edessa
Edessa
to the east, and the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
or the Kingdom of Armenia to the northwest, depending on the date. It had roughly 20,000 inhabitants in the 12th century, most of whom were Armenians
Armenians
and Greek Orthodox
Greek Orthodox
Christians, with a few Muslims outside the city itself
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Near East
The Near East
Near East
is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia. Despite having varying definitions within different academic circles, the term was originally applied to the maximum extent of the Ottoman Empire
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Romanization
Romanization
Romanization
(also spelled romanisation: see spelling differences), in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so. Methods of romanization include transliteration, for representing written text, and transcription, for representing the spoken word, and combinations of both
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Byname
An epithet (from Greek: ἐπίθετον epitheton, neuter of ἐπίθετος epithetos, "attributed, added"[1]) is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage. It has various shades of meaning when applied to seemingly real or fictitious people, divinities, objects, and binomial nomenclature
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Franks
The Franks
Franks
(Latin: Franci or Latin: gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine
Middle Rhine
in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire. Later the term is associated with Romanized Germanic dynasties within the collapsing Roman Empire, who eventually commanded the whole region between the rivers Loire
Loire
and Rhine, and imposed power over many other post-Roman kingdoms and Germanic peoples, later being recognized by the Catholic church as successors to the old rulers of the Western Roman Empire.[1][2][3][a] Although the Frankish name only appears in the 3rd century, at least some of the original Frankish tribes had long been known under their own names to the Romans, both as allies providing soldiers, and as enemies
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Dudo Of Saint-Quentin
Dudo, or Dudon, was a Norman historian, and dean of Saint-Quentin, where he was born about 965. Sent in 986 by Albert I, Count of Vermandois, on an errand to Richard I, Duke of Normandy, he succeeded in his mission, and, having made a very favorable impression at the Norman court, spent some years in that country. During a second stay in Normandy, Dudo wrote his history of the Normans, a task which Duke Richard had urged him to undertake. Very little else is known about his life, except that he died before 1043.[1]Contents1 Historia Normannorum 2 Notes 3 Edition and translation 4 Further reading 5 External linksHistoria Normannorum[edit] Written between 996 and 1015, his Historia Normannorum, or Libri III de moribus et actis primorum Normanniae ducum, was dedicated to Adalberon, bishop of Laon
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Baptismal Name
A Christian name, sometimes referred to as a baptismal name, is a religious personal name historically given on the occasion of a Christian baptism, though now most often assigned by parents at birth.[1] In English-speaking cultures, a person's Christian name
Christian name
is commonly their first name and is typically the name by which they are primarily known. Traditionally, a
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Norman French
Previously used:Alderney, Herm England
England
(see Norman England) Ireland
Ireland
(see: Norman Ireland)
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Wace
Wace
Wace
(c. 1110[1] – after 1174[2]), sometimes referred to as Robert Wace,[3] was a Norman poet, who was born in Jersey
Jersey
and brought up in mainland Normandy
Normandy
(he tells us in the Roman de Rou
Roman de Rou
that he was taken as a child to Caen), ending his career as Canon of Bayeux.Contents1 Life 2 Works2.1 Roman de Brut 2.2 Roman de Rou3 Language 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksLife[edit] All that is known of Wace's life comes from autobiographical references in his poems. He neglected to mention his birthdate; sometime between 1099 and 1111 is the most commonly accepted year of his birth. The name Wace, used in Jersey
Jersey
until the 16th century, appears to have been his only name; surnames were not universally used at that time. It was quite a common first name in the Duchy of Normandy, derived from Germanic personal name Wasso
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