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Rocky Mountain Trench
The Rocky Mountain Trench, also known as The Valley of a Thousand Peaks or simply the Trench, is a large valley in the northern part of the Rocky Mountains. It is both visually and cartographically a striking physiographic feature extending approximately 1,600 km (1,000 mi) from Flathead Lake, Montana
Montana
to the Liard River, just south of the British Columbia- Yukon
Yukon
border near Watson Lake, Yukon. The trench bottom is 3-16 km (2–10 miles) wide and ranges from 600-900 metres (2,000–3,000 feet) above sea level. The general orientation of the Trench is an almost uniform 150/330 degree geographic north vector and has become convenient for north/south aviators. Although some of its topography has been carved into glacial valleys, it is primarily a byproduct of faulting
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Alaska
Coordinates: 64°N 150°W / 64°N 150°W / 64; -150[1]State of AlaskaFlag SealNickname(s): The Last FrontierMotto(s): North to the FutureState song(s): "Alaska's Flag"Official language English, Inupiat, Central Siberian Yupik, Central Alaskan Yup'ik, Alutiiq, Aleut, Dena'ina, Deg Xinag, Holikachuk, Koyukon, Upper Kuskokwim, Gwich'in, Lower Tanana, Upper Tanana, Tanacross, Hän, Ahtna, Eyak, Tlingit, Haida, Coast TsimshianSpoken languages English 86.3% Alaska Native languages 5.2% Tagalog 3.4% Spanish 2.9% Others 2.2%Demonym AlaskanCapital JuneauLargest city AnchorageArea Ranked 1st • Total 663,268 sq mi (1,717,856 km2) • Width 2,261 miles (3,639 km
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Flathead River
The Flathead River
Flathead River
(Salish: ntx̣ʷetkʷ, ntx̣ʷe [5]), in the northwestern part of the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Montana, originates in the Canadian Rockies
Canadian Rockies
to the north of Glacier National Park and flows southwest into Flathead Lake, then after a journey of 158 miles (254 km), empties into the Clark Fork. The river is part of the Columbia River
Columbia River
drainage basin, as the Clark Fork is a tributary of the Pend Oreille River, a Columbia River
Columbia River
tributary
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Finlay River
The Finlay River
Finlay River
is a 402 km long river in north-central British Columbia flowing north and thence south from Thutade Lake in the Omineca Mountains
Omineca Mountains
to Williston Lake, the impounded waters of the Peace River formed by the completion of the W.A.C. Bennett Dam in 1968. Prior to this, the Finlay joined with the Parsnip River to form the Peace. The headwaters of the Finlay at Thutade Lake are considered the ultimate source of the Mackenzie River.[1] Deserters Canyon is located just north of Williston Lake. The Finlay drains an area of 43,000 square kilometres and discharges at a mean rate of 600 cubic metres per second. Major tributaries of the Finlay include the Ospika, Ingenika, Warneford, Fox, Toodoggone, and Firesteel Rivers (the Ospika now enters Lake Williston directly, however)
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Kinbasket Lake
Kinbasket Lake
Kinbasket Lake
(or Kinbasket Reservoir) is a reservoir on the Columbia River in southeast British Columbia, north of the city of Revelstoke and the town of Golden. The reservoir was created by the construction of the Mica Dam. The lake includes two reaches, Columbia Reach (to the south) and Canoe Reach (to the north), referring to the river valleys flooded by the dam. To the north it almost reaches the town of Valemount in an impoundment of the Canoe River. To the south it reaches upstream the Columbia River
Columbia River
towards the city of Golden. The original, smaller Kinbasket Lake
Kinbasket Lake
was named in 1866 after Kinbasket, a chief of the Shuswap people
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Libby Dam
Libby Dam is a dam on the Kootenai River in the U.S. state of Montana. Dedicated on August 24, 1975, Libby Dam spans the Kootenai River 17 miles (27 km) upstream from the town of Libby, Montana. Libby Dam is 422 feet (129 m) tall and 3,055 feet (931 m) long. The reservoir behind the dam is Lake Koocanusa; it extends 90 miles (140 km) upriver from the dam and has a maximum depth of about 370 feet (110 m) . Forty-two miles (68 km) of Lake Koocanusa are in British Columbia, Canada. Lake Koocanusa was named for the treaty that was developed between the Kootenai Indians, the Canadian government, and the U.S. government to build the Dam and form the reservoir. It is the fourth dam constructed under the Columbia River Treaty. The Kootenai River is the third largest tributary to the Columbia river, contributing almost 20% of the total water in the lower Columbia
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Castlegar, British Columbia
Castlegar is the second largest community in the West Kootenay
West Kootenay
region of British Columbia, Canada. Castlegar is located within the Selkirk Mountains
Selkirk Mountains
at the confluence of the Kootenay and Columbia Rivers. Castlegar is a regional trade and transportation centre, with a local economy fueled by forestry, mining and tourism. Castlegar was recently cited as one of the Top 8 Places in British Columbia for most promising growth.[1] It is home to Selkirk College, a regional airport, a pulp mill, and several sawmills
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Strike-slip Fault
In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement. Large faults within the Earth's crust result from the action of plate tectonic forces, with the largest forming the boundaries between the plates, such as subduction zones or transform faults. Energy release associated with rapid movement on active faults is the cause of most earthquakes. A fault plane is the plane that represents the fracture surface of a fault. A fault trace or fault line is a place where the fault can be seen or mapped on the surface
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Normal Fault
In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement. Large faults within the Earth's crust result from the action of plate tectonic forces, with the largest forming the boundaries between the plates, such as subduction zones or transform faults. Energy release associated with rapid movement on active faults is the cause of most earthquakes. A fault plane is the plane that represents the fracture surface of a fault. A fault trace or fault line is a place where the fault can be seen or mapped on the surface
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Basement Rock
In geology, basement and crystalline basement are the rocks below a sedimentary platform or cover, or more generally any rock below sedimentary rocks or sedimentary basins that are metamorphic or igneous in origin. In the same way, the sediments or sedimentary rocks on top of the basement can be called a "cover" or "sedimentary cover".Contents1 Continental crust 2 Age 3 Complexity 4 Volcanism 5 Cratons 6 Usage 7 See also 8 ReferencesContinental crust[edit] Basement rock is the thick foundation of ancient, and oldest metamorphic and igneous rock that forms the crust of continents, often in the form of granite. Basement rock is contrasted to overlying sedimentary rocks which are laid down on top of the basement rocks after the continent was formed, such as sandstone and limestone. The sedimentary rocks which may be deposited on top of the basement usually form a relatively thin veneer, but can be more than 3 miles thick
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Jurassic
The Jurassic
Jurassic
( /dʒʊˈræsɪk/; from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic
Triassic
Period 201.3 million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period 145 Mya.[note 1] The Jurassic
Jurassic
constituted the middle period of the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era, also known as the Age of Reptiles. The start of the period was marked by the major Triassic–Jurassic extinction event
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Kinbasket Reservoir
Kinbasket Lake (or Kinbasket Reservoir) is a reservoir on the Columbia River in southeast British Columbia, north of the city of Revelstoke and the town of Golden. The reservoir was created by the construction of the Mica Dam. The lake includes two reaches, Columbia Reach (to the south) and Canoe Reach (to the north), referring to the river valleys flooded by the dam. To the north it almost reaches the town of Valemount in an impoundment of the Canoe River. To the south it reaches upstream the Columbia River towards the city of Golden. The original, smaller Kinbasket Lake was named in 1866 after Kinbasket, a chief of the Shuswap people. The modern, large lake was created after the completion of the Mica Dam in 1973, and was called McNaughton Lake (after Andrew McNaughton) until 1980. A number of small communities were inundated by the creation of Kinbasket Lake, and comprised a region known as the Big Bend Country, a subregion of the Columbia Country
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Cretaceous
The Cretaceous
Cretaceous
( /krɪˈteɪʃəs/, kri-TAY-shəs) is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic
Jurassic
Period 145 million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period 66 mya. It is the last period of the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era. The Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period is usually abbreviated K, for its German translation Kreide (chalk). The Cretaceous
Cretaceous
was a period with a relatively warm climate, resulting in high eustatic sea levels that created numerous shallow inland seas. These oceans and seas were populated with now-extinct marine reptiles, ammonites and rudists, while dinosaurs continued to dominate on land. During this time, new groups of mammals and birds, as well as flowering plants, appeared
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Cenozoic
The Cenozoic
Cenozoic
Era ( /ˌsiːnəˈzoʊɪk, ˌsɛ-/)[1][2] is the current geological era, covering the period from 66 million years ago to the present day. The Cenozoic
Cenozoic
is also known as the Age of Mammals, because of the large mammals that dominate it. The continents also moved into their current positions during this era.Contents1 Nomenclature 2 Divisions2.1 Paleogene Period 2.2 Neogene 2.3 Quaternary3 Animal life 4 Tectonics 5 Climate 6 Life 7 See also 8 References 9 Bibliography 10 External linksNomenclature[edit] Cenozoic, meaning "new life," is derived from Greek καινός kainós "new," and ζωή zōḗ "life."[3] The era is also known as the Cænozoic, Caenozoic, or Cainozoic
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Eocene
The Eocene
Eocene
( /ˈiːəˌsiːn, ˈiːoʊ-/[2][3]) Epoch, lasting from 56 to 33.9 million years ago, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
Era. The Eocene
Eocene
spans the time from the end of the Paleocene Epoch to the beginning of the Oligocene
Oligocene
Epoch. The start of the Eocene is marked by a brief period in which the concentration of the carbon isotope 13C in the atmosphere was exceptionally low in comparison with the more common isotope 12C. The end is set at a major extinction event called the Grande Coupure (the "Great Break" in continuity) or the Eocene– Oligocene
Oligocene
extinction event, which may be related to the impact of one or more large bolides in Siberia and in what is now Chesapeake Bay
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