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Rock Martin
Hirundo fuligula Lichtenstein , 1842 The ROCK MARTIN ( Ptyonoprogne
Ptyonoprogne
fuligula) is a small passerine bird in the swallow family that is resident in central and southern Africa. It breeds mainly in the mountains, but also at lower altitudes, especially in rocky areas and around towns, and, unlike most swallows, it is often found far from water. It is 12–15 cm (4.7–5.9 in) long, with mainly brown plumage , paler-toned on the upper breast and underwing coverts , and with white "windows" on the spread tail in flight. The sexes are similar in appearance, but juveniles have pale fringes to the upperparts and flight feathers . The former northern subspecies are smaller, paler, and whiter-throated than southern African forms, and are now usually split as a separate species, the pale crag martin . The rock martin hunts along cliff faces for flying insects using a slow flight with much gliding. Its call is a soft twitter
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Ancient Greek
The ANCIENT GREEK language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
( Koine Greek
Koine Greek
, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek . The language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine (common). Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
Medieval Greek
. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects
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Procne
PROCNE /ˈprɒk.ni/ ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Πρόκνη, Próknē ) is a minor figure in Greek mythology
Greek mythology
. She was the elder daughter of a king of Athens named Pandion and the wife of King Tereus
Tereus
of Thrace
Thrace
. Her beautiful sister Philomela visited the couple and was raped by Tereus, who tore out her tongue to prevent her revealing the crime. She wove a tapestry which made it clear what had been done, and the two women took their revenge. Procne
Procne
killed her son by Tereus, Itys (or Itylos), boiled him and served him as a meal to her husband. After he had finished his meal, the sisters presented Tereus
Tereus
with the severed head of his son, and he realised what had been done. He snatched up an axe and pursued them with the intent to kill the sisters
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Specific Name (zoology)
In zoological nomenclature , the SPECIFIC NAME (also SPECIFIC EPITHET or SPECIES EPITHET) is the second part (the second name) within the name of a species (a binomen ). The first part of the name of a species is the name of the genus or the generic name. The rules and regulations governing the giving of a new species name are explained in the article species description . Example The scientific name for humans is Homo sapiens, which is the species name, consisting of two names: Homo is the "generic name " (the name of the genus) and sapiens is the "specific name". THE GRAMMAR OF SPECIES NAMESGrammatically, a binomen (and a trinomen , also) must be treated as if it were a Latin
Latin
phrase, no matter which language the words were originally taken from
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DNA Sequence
A NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides within a DNA
DNA
(using GACT) or RNA
RNA
(GACU) molecule. By convention, sequences are usually presented from the 5\' end to the 3\' end . For DNA, the sense strand is used. Because nucleic acids are normally linear (unbranched) polymers , specifying the sequence is equivalent to defining the covalent structure of the entire molecule. For this reason, the nucleic acid sequence is also termed the primary structure . The sequence has capacity to represent information . Biological deoxyribonucleic acid represents the information which directs the functions of a living thing. Nucleic acids also have a secondary structure and tertiary structure . Primary structure is sometimes mistakenly referred to as primary sequence. Conversely, there is no parallel concept of secondary or tertiary sequence
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Karoo National Park
The KAROO NATIONAL PARK, founded in 1979, is a wildlife reserve in the Great Karoo area of the Western Cape
Western Cape
, South Africa
South Africa
near Beaufort West . This semi-desert area covers an area of 750 square kilometres (290 sq mi). The Nuweveld portion of the Great Escarpment runs through the Park. It is therefore partly in the Lower Karoo , at about 850 m above sea level, and partly in the Upper Karoo at over 1300 m altitude
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Least Concern
A LEAST CONCERN (LC) species is a species which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature
(IUCN) as evaluated but not qualified for any other category. As such they do not qualify as threatened , near threatened , or (before 2001) conservation dependent . Species
Species
cannot be assigned the Least Concern category unless they have had their population status evaluated. That is, adequate information is needed to make a direct, or indirect, assessment of its risk of extinction based on its distribution or population status. Since 2001 the category has had the abbreviation "LC", following the IUCN 2001 Categories -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;"> * ^ "2001 Categories ">(PDF). The IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-01-28
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Fledge
FLEDGING is the stage in a young bird 's life between hatching and flight. For altricial birds, those that spend more time in vulnerable condition in the nest , the nestling and fledging stage can be the same. For precocial birds, those that develop and leave the nest quickly, a short nestling stage precedes a longer fledging stage. All birds are considered to have fledged when the feathers and wing muscles are sufficiently developed for flight. A young bird that has recently fledged but is still dependent upon parental care and feeding is called a FLEDGLING. People often want to help fledglings, as they appear vulnerable, but it is best to leave them alone. The USA National Phenology Network defines the phenophase (or life cycle stage) of fledged young for birds as “One or more young are seen recently departed from the nest
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Falcon
About 37; see text. SYNONYMS * Aesalon * Lithofalco * Tinnunculus Linnaeus, 1766 * Hierofalco Cuvier , 1817 * Cerchneis Boie, 1826 * Hypotriorchis Boie, 1826 * Rhynchodon Nitzsch, 1829 * Ieracidea Gould , 1838 * Hieracidea Strickland , 1841 (unjustified emendation) * Gennaia Kaup , 1847 * Jerafalco Kaup , 1850 (unjustified emendation) * Harpe Bonaparte, 1855 (non Lacepède 1802: preoccupied ) * Dissodectes Sclater , 1864 * Genaïe Heuglin , 1867 (unjustified emendation) * Harpa Sharpe , 1874 (non Pallas 1774: preoccupied ) * Gennadas Heine "> (unjustified emendation) * Nesierax Oberholser , 1899 * Nesihierax Dubois, 1902 (unjustified emendation) * Asturaetus De Vis , 1906 (non Asturaetos Brehm 1855: preoccupied) * Plioaetus Richmond , 1908 * Sushkinia Tugarinov, 1935 (non Martynov 1930: preoccupied ) – see belowFALCONS (/ˈfɒlkən, ˈfɔːl-, ˈfæl-/ ) are birds of prey in the genus Falco, which includes about 40 species
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Hobby (bird)
6-9, see text. A HOBBY is a fairly small, very swift falcon with long, narrow wings. There are four birds called "hobby", and some others which, although termed "falcon", are very similar. All specialise in being superb aerialists. Although they take prey on the ground if the opportunity presents itself, most prey is caught on the wing; insects are often caught by hawking , and many different birds are caught in flight, where even the quick maneuvering swifts and swallows cannot escape a hobby. The typical hobbies are traditionally considered a subgenus , Hypotriorchis, due to their similar morphology ; they have ample amounts of dark slaty grey in their plumage; the malar area is black; and the underside usually has lengthwise black streaks. The tails are all-dark or have only slight bands. Monophyly
Monophyly
of Hypotriorchis is supported by DNA sequence
DNA sequence
data, though the exact limits of the group are still uncertain
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Retort
In a chemistry laboratory, a RETORT is a glassware device used for distillation or dry distillation of substances. It consists of a spherical vessel with a long downward-pointing neck. The liquid to be distilled is placed in the vessel and heated. The neck acts as a condenser , allowing the vapors to condense and flow along the neck to a collection vessel placed underneath. In the chemical industry, a RETORT is an airtight vessel in which substances are heated for a chemical reaction producing gaseous products to be collected in a collection vessel or for further processing. Such industrial-scale retorts are used in shale oil extraction and the production of charcoal . A process of heating oil shale to produce shale oil , oil shale gas , and spent shale is commonly called RETORTING. In the food industry, pressure cookers are often referred to as retorts, meaning "canning retorts", for sterilization under high temperature (116–130 °C)
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Cline (biology)
In biology and ecology , an ECOCLINE or simply CLINE (from Greek : κλίνω "to possess or exhibit gradient, to lean") is an ecotone in which a series of biocommunities display a continuous gradient. The term was coined by the English evolutionary biologist Julian Huxley in 1938. More technically, clines consist of ecotypes or forms of species that exhibit gradual phenotypic and/or genetic differences over a geographical area, typically as a result of environmental heterogeneity. Genetically, clines result from the change of allele frequencies within the gene pool of the group of taxa in question. Clines may manifest in time and/or space. CONTENTS * 1 Gradient analysis * 2 Ring species
Ring species
* 3 See also * 4 References GRADIENT ANALYSISIn ecology, spatial clines have led to gradient analysis where the abundance and distribution of organisms is rendered by sinusoidal curves on the plane
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Nominate Subspecies
In biological classification , SUBSPECIES (abbreviated "SUBSP." or "SSP."; plural : "subspecies") is either a taxonomic rank subordinate to species , or a taxonomic unit in that rank. A subspecies cannot be recognized independently: a species will either be recognized as having no subspecies at all or at least two (including any that are extinct). In zoology , under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature , the subspecies is the only taxonomic rank below that of species that can receive a name. In botany and mycology , under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants , other infraspecific ranks , such as variety , may be named. In bacteriology and virology , under standard bacterial nomenclature and virus nomenclature , there are recommendations but not strict requirements for recognizing other important infraspecific ranks. A taxonomist decides whether to recognize a subspecies or not
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Jack Vincent
JACK VINCENT MBE (March 6, 1904 – July 3, 1999) was an English ornithologist. BIOGRAPHYVincent was born in London . At age 21 he moved to South Africa where he worked on two farms in the Richmond district of the Natal Province . In the 1920s he went back to England where he became a bird collector for the British Museum in London . From the late 1920s to the early 1930s he accompanied Admiral Hubert Lynes on several ornithological expeditions to East Africa , Central Africa and Southern Africa . Most memorable was his travel to the Mount Namuli massif in Mozambique in 1932 where he discovered some bird taxa new to science including the Namuli apalis (Apalis lynesi) and the dapple-throat (Arcanator orostruthus). In 1934 he married the Scottish girl Mary Russell in Cape Town . In 1937 Vincent bought a farm in the Mooi River district of Natal. During World War II he served as colonel with the Natal Carbineers in East and Northern Africa
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David Armitage Bannerman
DAVID ARMITAGE BANNERMAN OBE , MA , SD (Cantab), Hon. LL.D. (Glasgow), FRSE , FZS (27 November 1886 – 6 April 1979) was a British ornithologist . From 1919 to 1952 he was Curator of the British Museum
British Museum
of Natural History. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Bibliography * 2.1 Contributions * 2.2 Notable articles * 3 References BIOGRAPHYHe was the son of David Alexander Bannerman. He was educated at Wellington College, Berkshire
Wellington College, Berkshire
, before going to university. After graduating from Pembroke College, Cambridge in 1909, Bannerman travelled extensively in Africa, the West Indies, South America and the Atlantic Islands
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Eastern Cape
The EASTERN CAPE is a province of South Africa
South Africa
. Its capital is Bhisho
Bhisho
, but its two largest cities are Port Elizabeth
Port Elizabeth
and East London . It was formed in 1994 out of the Xhosa homelands of Transkei
Transkei
and Ciskei
Ciskei
, together with the eastern portion of the Cape Province
Cape Province
. Landing place and home of the 1820 settlers, the central and eastern part of the province is the traditional home of the Xhosa people
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