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Rock Martin
Hirundo
Hirundo
fuligula Lichtenstein, 1842The rock martin ( Ptyonoprogne
Ptyonoprogne
fuligula) is a small passerine bird in the swallow family that is resident in central and southern Africa. It breeds mainly in the mountains, but also at lower altitudes, especially in rocky areas and around towns, and, unlike most swallows, it is often found far from water. It is 12–15 cm (4.7–5.9 in) long, with mainly brown plumage, paler-toned on the upper breast and underwing coverts, and with white "windows" on the spread tail in flight. The sexes are similar in appearance, but juveniles have pale fringes to the upperparts and flight feathers. The former northern subspecies are smaller, paler, and whiter-throated than southern African forms, and are now usually split as a separate species, the pale crag martin. The rock martin hunts along cliff faces for flying insects using a slow flight with much gliding
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Karoo National Park
The Karoo
Karoo
National Park, founded in 1979, is a wildlife reserve in the Great Karoo
Karoo
area of the Western Cape, South Africa
South Africa
near Beaufort West. This semi-desert area covers an area of 750 square kilometres (290 sq mi).[1] The Nuweveld portion of the Great Escarpment runs through the Park
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Retort
In a chemistry laboratory, a retort is a glassware device used for distillation or dry distillation of substances. It consists of a spherical vessel with a long downward-pointing neck. The liquid to be distilled is placed in the vessel and heated. The neck acts as a condenser, allowing the vapors to condense and flow along the neck to a collection vessel placed underneath.[1] In the chemical industry, a retort is an airtight vessel in which substances are heated for a chemical reaction producing gaseous products to be collected in a collection vessel or for further processing. Such industrial-scale retorts are used in shale oil extraction and the production of charcoal. A process of heating oil shale to produce shale oil, oil shale gas, and spent shale is commonly called retorting
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Hobby (bird)
6-9, see text.A hobby is a fairly small, very swift falcon with long, narrow wings. There are four birds called "hobby", and some others which, although termed "falcon", are very similar. All specialise in being superb aerialists. Although they take prey on the ground if the opportunity presents itself, most prey is caught on the wing; insects are often caught by hawking, and many different birds are caught in flight, where even the quick maneuvering swifts and swallows cannot escape a hobby. The typical hobbies are traditionally considered a subgenus, Hypotriorchis, due to their similar morphology; they have ample amounts of dark slaty grey in their plumage; the malar area is black; and the underside usually has lengthwise black streaks. The tails are all-dark or have only slight bands.[1] Monophyly
Monophyly
of Hypotriorchis is supported by DNA sequence
DNA sequence
data, though the exact limits of the group are still uncertain
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Least Concern
A least concern (LC) species is a species which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature
(IUCN) as evaluated but not qualified for any other category. As such they do not qualify as threatened, near threatened, or (before 2001) conservation dependent. Species
Species
cannot be assigned the Least Concern category unless they have had their population status evaluated. That is, adequate information is needed to make a direct, or indirect, assessment of its risk of extinction based on its distribution or population status. Since 2001 the category has had the abbreviation "LC", following the IUCN 2001 Categories & Criteria (version 3.1).[1] However, around 20% of least concern taxa (3261 of 15636) in the IUCN database use the code "LR/lc", which indicates they have not been re-evaluated since 2000
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Western Cape
The Western Cape
Western Cape
(Afrikaans: Wes-Kaap, Xhosa: Ntshona Koloni) is a province of South Africa, situated on the south-western coast of the country. It is the fourth largest of the nine provinces with an area of 129,449 square kilometres (49,981 sq mi), and the third most populated, with an estimated 6.5 million inhabitants in 2017.[3] About two-thirds of these inhabitants live in the metropolitan area of Cape Town, which is also the provincial capital
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Ancient Greek
The Ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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Procne
Procne
Procne
(/ˈprɒkni/; Ancient Greek: Πρόκνη, Próknē [pró.knɛː]) is a minor figure in Greek mythology. She was the elder daughter of a king of Athens named Pandion and the wife of King Tereus of Thrace. Her beautiful sister Philomela
Philomela
visited the couple and was raped by Tereus, who tore out her tongue to prevent her revealing the crime. She wove a tapestry which made it clear what had been done, and the two women took their revenge.[1] Procne
Procne
killed her son by Tereus, Itys (or Itylos), boiled him and served him as a meal to her husband.[2] After he had finished his meal, the sisters presented Tereus
Tereus
with the severed head of his son, and he realised what had been done.[2] He snatched up an axe and pursued them with the intent to kill the sisters.[2] They fled but were almost overtaken by Tereus
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Specific Name (zoology)
In zoological nomenclature, the specific name (also specific epithet or species epithet) is the second part (the second name) within the scientific name of a species (a binomen). The first part of the name of a species is the name of the genus or the generic name. The rules and regulations governing the giving of a new species name are explained in the article species description.Example The scientific name for humans is Homo sapiens, which is the species name, consisting of two names: Homo is the "generic name" (the name of the genus) and sapiens is the "specific name".The grammar of species names[edit] Grammatically, a binomen (and a trinomen, also) must be treated as if it were a Latin
Latin
phrase, no matter which language the words were originally taken from
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DNA Sequence
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides within a DNA
DNA
(using GACT) or RNA
RNA
(GACU) molecule. By convention, sequences are usually presented from the 5' end to the 3' end. For DNA, the sense strand is used. Because nucleic acids are normally linear (unbranched) polymers, specifying the sequence is equivalent to defining the covalent structure of the entire molecule. For this reason, the nucleic acid sequence is also termed the primary structure. The sequence has capacity to represent information. Biological deoxyribonucleic acid represents the information which directs the functions of a living thing. Nucleic acids also have a secondary structure and tertiary structure. Primary structure
Primary structure
is sometimes mistakenly referred to as primary sequence
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Cline (biology)
In biology and ecology, an ecocline or simply cline (from Greek: κλίνω "to possess or exhibit gradient, to lean") is an ecotone[jargon] in which a series of biocommunities display a continuous gradient.[1] The term was coined by the English evolutionary biologist Julian Huxley
Julian Huxley
in 1938. More technically, clines consist of ecotypes or forms of species that exhibit gradual phenotypic and/or genetic differences over a geographical area, typically as a result of environmental heterogeneity. Genetically, clines result from the change of allele frequencies within the gene pool of the group of taxa in question.[2][3][4] Clines may manifest in time and/or space.[5]Contents1 Gradient analysis 2 Ring species 3 See also 4 ReferencesGradient analysis[edit] In ecology, spatial clines have led to gradient analysis where the abundance and distribution of organisms is rendered by sinusoidal curves on the plane
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Fledge
Fledging is the stage in a young bird's life between hatching and flight.[1] For altricial birds, those that spend more time in vulnerable condition in the nest, the nestling and fledging stage can be the same. For precocial birds, those that develop and leave the nest quickly, a short nestling stage precedes a longer fledging stage.[2] All birds are considered to have fledged when the feathers and wing muscles are sufficiently developed for flight. A young bird that has recently fledged but is still dependent upon parental care and feeding is called a fledgling. People often want to help fledglings, as they appear vulnerable, but it is best to leave them alone.[3] The USA National Phenology Network defines the phenophase (or life cycle stage) of fledged young for birds as "One or more young are seen recently departed from the nest
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North Africa
North Africa
Africa
is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries situated in the northern-most region of the African continent. The term "North Africa" has no single accepted definition. It is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic
Atlantic
shores of Morocco
Morocco
in the west, to the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
and the Red Sea
Red Sea
in the east. Others have limited it to the countries of Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, a region known by the French during colonial times as “Afrique du Nord” and by the Arabs
Arabs
as the Maghreb
Maghreb
(“West”). The most commonly accepted definition includes Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, as well as Libya
Libya
and Egypt
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Arabia
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia[1] (Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية‎ Shibhu al-jazīrati al-ʿarabiyya, ‘Arabian island’ or Arabic: جزيرة العرب‎ Jazīratu Al-ʿArab, ‘Island of the Arabs’),[2] is a peninsula of Western Asia
Asia
situated northeast of Africa
Africa
on the Arabian plate
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Ornithology
Ornithology
Ornithology
is a branch of zoology that concerns the study of birds. The word "ornithology" derives from the ancient Greek ὄρνις ornis ("bird") and λόγος logos ("rationale" or "explanation"). Several aspects of ornithology differ from related disciplines, due partly to the high visibility and the aesthetic appeal of birds.[1] Most marked among these is the extent of studies undertaken by amateurs working within the parameters of strict scientific methodology. The science of ornithology has a long history and studies on birds have helped develop several key concepts in evolution, behaviour and ecology such as the defin
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Jean Cabanis
Jean Louis Cabanis (8 March 1816 – 20 February 1906) was a German ornithologist. Cabanis was born in Berlin. He studied at the University of Berlin from 1835 to 1839, and then travelled to North America, returning in 1841 with a large natural history collection. He was assistant and later director of the Natural History Museum of Berlin
Berlin
(which was at the time the Berlin
Berlin
University Museum), taking over from Martin Lichtenstein
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