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Robotic Spacecraft
A robotic spacecraft is an uncrewed spacecraft, usually under telerobotic control. A robotic spacecraft designed to make scientific research measurements is often called a space probe. Many space missions are more suited to telerobotic rather than crewed operation, due to lower cost and lower risk factors. In addition, some planetary destinations such as Venus
Venus
or the vicinity of Jupiter
Jupiter
are too hostile for human survival, given current technology
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MESSENGER
A messenger or courier is a person or thing that carries a message. Messenger or Messengers may also refer to:Contents1 People 2 Science and technology2.1 Biology and chemistry 2.2 Electronics and computing3 Transport 4 Literature 5 Periodicals 6 In film and television 7 In gaming 8 In music8.1 Groups 8.2 Albums 8.3 Songs9 Other uses 10 See alsoPeople[edit] Messenger (surname) Bicycle messenger, a bicyclist who transports packages through cities Messenger-at-arms, an officer of the Scottish Court of Session Messenger of the Cour
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Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator
A Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG, RITEG) is an electrical generator that uses an array of thermocouples to convert the heat released by the decay of a suitable radioactive material into electricity by the Seebeck effect. This generator has no moving parts. RTGs have been used as power sources in satellites, space probes, and unmanned remote facilities such as a series of lighthouses built by the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
inside the Arctic Circle. RTGs are usually the most desirable power source for unmaintained situations that need a few hundred watts (or less) of power for durations too long for fuel cells, batteries, or generators to provide economically, and in places where solar cells are not practical
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Iran
Iran
Iran
(Persian: ایران‎ Irān [ʔiːˈɾɒːn] ( listen)), also known as Persia[10] (/ˈpɜːrʒə/),[11] officially the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Iran (Persian: جمهوری اسلامی ایران‎ Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān ( listen)),[12] is a sovereign state in Western Asia.[13][14] With over 81 million inhabitants,[6] Iran
Iran
is the world's 18th-most-populous country.[15] Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second-largest country in the Middle East
Middle East
and the 17th-largest in the world
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United States Air Force
Department of Defense Department of the Air ForceHeadquarters The Pentagon Arlington County, Virginia, U.S.Motto(s) "Aim High ... Fly-Fight-Win"[7] "Integrity first, Service before self, Excellence in all we do"[8]Colors Ultramarine
Ultramarine
blue, Golden yellow[9]          March The U.S. Air Force
U.S. Air Force
 Play (help·info)Anniversaries 18 SeptemberEngagementsSee listMexican Expedition (As Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps) World War I
World War I
(As Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps
Aviation Section, U.S

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Payload (air And Space Craft)
Payload
Payload
is the carrying capacity of an aircraft or launch vehicle, usually measured in terms of weight. Depending on the nature of the flight or mission, the payload of a vehicle may include cargo, passengers, flight crew, munitions, scientific instruments or experiments, or other equipment. Extra fuel, when optionally carried, is also considered part of the payload. In a commercial context (i.e., an airline or air freight carrier), payload may refer only to revenue-generating cargo or paying passengers.[1] For a rocket, the payload can be a satellite, space probe, or spacecraft carrying humans, animals, or cargo. For a ballistic missile, the payload is one or more warheads and related systems; the total weight of these systems is referred to as the throw-weight. The fraction of payload to the total liftoff weight of the air or spacecraft is known as the "payload fraction"
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Satellite Bus
A satellite bus or spacecraft bus is a general model on which multiple-production satellite spacecraft are often based. The bus is the infrastructure of the spacecraft, usually providing locations for the payload (typically space experiments or instruments). Bus-derived satellites are opposed to one-off, or specially produced satellites. Bus-derived satellites are usually customized to customer requirements, for example with specialized sensors or transponders, in order to achieve a specific mission.[1][2][3][4] They are commonly used for geosynchronous satellites, particularly communications satellites, but are also used in spacecraft which occupy lower orbits, occasionally including low Earth orbit missions.Contents1 Examples 2 Components 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksExamples[edit] Main article: Comparison of satellite buses (only commercially available models)Diagram of the James Webb Space Telescope's spacecraft bus
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Attitude Control System
Attitude may refer to:Contents1 Psychology 2 Arts 3 Media 4 Music4.1 Albums 4.2 Songs5 Other meaningsPsychology[edit]Attitude (psychology), an acquired or predisposed mental state regarding an object with some degree of negativity which is perceived from a social or personal stimuli. Propositional attitude, a relational mental state connecting a person to a proposition.Arts[edit]Attitude (art), the posture or gesture given to a figure by a painter or sculptorMedia[edit]Attitude (magazine), a British gay lifestyle magazine Attitude (TV series), a New Zealand television show Attitudes (TV series), an American television talk show on Lifetime Television Attitude: The New Subversive Cartoonists, an anthology of editorial cartoonsMusic[edit]Attitudes (band), a 1970s pop/rock quartet Attitude Records, a record labelAlbums[edit]Attitude (April Wine album), 1993 Attitude (Collette album), 1991 Att
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Photovoltaic
Photovoltaics
Photovoltaics
(PV) is a term which covers the conversion of light into electricity using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect, a phenomenon studied in physics, photochemistry, and electrochemistry. A typical photovoltaic system employs solar panels, each comprising a number of solar cells, which generate electrical power
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Spacecraft Thermal Control
In spacecraft design, the function of the thermal control system (TCS) is to keep all the spacecraft's component systems within acceptable temperature ranges during all mission phases. It must cope with the external environment, which can vary in a wide range as the spacecraft is exposed to deep space or to solar or planetary flux, and with ejecting to space the internal heat generated by the operation of the spacecraft itself. Thermal control is essential to guarantee the optimum performance and success of the mission because if a component is subjected to temperatures which are too high or too low, it could be damaged or its performance could be severely affected
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Laika
Laika (Russian: Лайка; c. 1954 – 3 November 1957) was a Soviet space dog who became one of the first animals in space, and the first animal to orbit the Earth. Laika, a stray dog from the streets of Moscow, was selected to be the occupant of the Soviet spacecraft Sputnik 2 that was launched into outer space on 3 November 1957. Little was known about the impact of spaceflight on living creatures at the time of Laika's mission, and the technology to de-orbit had not yet been developed, so Laika's survival was never expected
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Micrometeoroid
A micrometeoroid is a tiny meteoroid; a small particle of rock in space, usually weighing less than a gram. A micrometeorite is such a particle that survives passage through the Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
and reaches the Earth's surface.Contents1 Scientific interest 2 Effect on spacecraft operations 3 Footnotes 4 See also 5 External linksScientific interest[edit] See also: Cosmic dust Micrometeoroids are very small pieces of rock or metal broken off from larger chunks of rock and debris often dating back to the birth of the Solar System. Micrometeoroids are extremely common in space. Tiny particles are a major contributor to space weathering processes. When they hit the surface of the Moon, or any airless body (Mercury, the asteroids, etc.), the resulting melting and vaporization causes darkening and other optical changes in the regolith
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Pyrotechnic
Pyrotechnics
Pyrotechnics
is the science of using materials capable of undergoing self-contained and self-sustained exothermic chemical reactions for the production of heat, light, gas, smoke and/or sound
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Telemetry
Telemetry
Telemetry
is an automated communications process by which measurements and other data are collected at remote or inaccessible points and transmitted to receiving equipment for monitoring.[1] The word is derived from Greek roots: tele = remote, and metron = measure. Systems that need external instructions and data to operate require the counterpart of telemetry, telecommand.[2] Although the term commonly refers to wireless data transfer mechanisms (e.g., using radio, ultrasonic, or infrared systems), it also encompasses data transferred over other media such as a telephone or computer network, optical link or other wired communications like power line carriers. Many modern telemetry systems take advantage of the low cost and ubiquity of GSM
GSM
networks by using SMS
SMS
to receive and transmit telemetry data. A telemeter is a device used to remotely measure any quantity
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AERCam Sprint
The Autonomous Extravehicular Activity Robotic Camera Sprint (AERCam Sprint) is a NASA experiment to demonstrate the use of a prototype free-flying television camera. It was tested on STS-87 and could also be used for remote inspections of the exterior of the International Space Station. The AERCam Sprint free-flyer is a 14-inch-diameter (360 mm), 35-pound (16 kg) sphere that contains two television cameras, an avionics system and 12 small nitrogen gas-powered thrusters. The sphere, which looks like an oversized soccer ball, was released by Mission Specialist Winston E. Scott during the STS-87 spacewalk and flew freely in the forward cargo bay for about 30 minutes. The free-flyer was remotely controlled by Pilot Steven W. Lindsey from the Shuttle's aft flight deck using a hand controller, two laptop computers and a window-mounted antenna
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MDA Space Infrastructure Servicing Vehicle
Space Infrastructure Servicing (SIS) is a spacecraft being developed by Canadian aerospace firm MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates to operate as a small-scale in-space refueling depot for communication satellites in geosynchronous orbit. Intelsat is a requirements and funding partner for the initial demonstration satellite which, as of March 2011[update], was planned to be launched in approximately 2015.[1][2] MDA put the launch plans on hold in November 2011 pending finding a second launch partner, beyond Intelsat.[3] Such a customer was not found, and Intelsat dropped out of the collaboration in January 2012. [4] In February 2012, MDA indicated that it was waiting on a possible DARPA contract before shelving the project. In February 2017, DARPA selected MDA's Palo Alto, California company, SSL, as their commercial partner for the Agency’s Robotic Servicing of Geosynchronous Satellites (RSGS) program
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