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Rhinolophus
See text.Horseshoe bats make up the bat family Rhinolophidae. In addition to the single living genus, Rhinolophus, one extinct genus, Palaeonycteris, has been recognized. The closely related Hipposideridae
Hipposideridae
are sometimes included within the horseshoe bats as a subfamily, Hipposiderinae. Both families are classified in the suborder Yinpterochiroptera
Yinpterochiroptera
or Pteropodiformes and were previously included in Microchiroptera.Contents1 Appearance 2 Ecology 3 Classification 4 Medical significance 5 List of species 6 Notes 7 ReferencesAppearance[edit]The lancet and sella in profilenose-leaf diagram of a horseshoe batAll horseshoe bats have leaf-like, horseshoe-shaped protuberances called noseleafs on their noses. The noseleafs are important in species identification, and are composed of several parts
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Australia
Coordinates: 25°S 133°E / 25°S 133°E / -25; 133Commonwealth of AustraliaFlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Advance Australia
Australia
Fair"[N 1]Capital Canberra 35°18′29″S 149°07′28″E / 35.30806°S 149.12444°E / -35.30806; 149.12444Largest city SydneyNational language English[N 2]DemonymAustralian Aussie
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Hibernation
Hibernation
Hibernation
is a state of inactivity and metabolic depression in endotherms. Hibernation
Hibernation
refers to a season of heterothermy characterized by low body temperature, slow breathing and heart rate, and low metabolic rate. Although traditionally reserved for "deep" hibernators such as rodents, the term has been redefined to include animals such as bears and is now applied based on active metabolic suppression rather than absolute body temperature decline. Many experts believe that the processes of daily torpor and hibernation form a continuum and utilize similar mechanisms.[1][2] The equivalent during the summer months is aestivation. Some reptile species (ectotherms) are said to brumate, but possible similarities between brumation and hibernation are not firmly established
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Africa
Africa
Africa
is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (the first being Asia
Asia
in both categories). At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its total land area.[3] With 1.2 billion[1] people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the north, both the Suez Canal and the Red Sea
Red Sea
along the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
to the northeast, the Indian Ocean
Ocean
to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west. The continent includes Madagascar
Madagascar
and various archipelagos
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Asia
Metropolitan areas of Asia List of cities in AsiaList Bangkok Beijing Busan Chittagong Delhi Dhaka Doha Dubai Guangzhou Hanoi Ho Chi Minh Hong Kong Istanbul Jakarta Karachi Kuala Lumpur Manila Mumbai Osaka Pyongyang Riyadh Shanghai Shenzhen Singapore Seoul Taipei[4] Tehran Tokyo Ulaanbaatar Asia
Asia
(/ˈeɪʒə, ˈeɪʃə/ ( listen)) is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe
Europe
and the continental landmass of Afro- Eurasia
Eurasia
with both Europe
Europe
and Africa
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Insectivorous
An insectivore is a carnivorous plant or animal that eats insects.[1] An alternative term is entomophage,[2] which also refers to the human practice of eating insects. The first insectivorous vertebrates were amphibians. When they evolved 400 million years ago, the first amphibians were piscivores, with numerous sharp conical teeth, much like a modern crocodile. The same tooth arrangement is however also suited for eating animals with exoskeletons, thus the ability to eat insects is an extension of piscivory.[3] At one time, insectivorous mammals were scientifically classified in an order called Insectivora. This order is now abandoned, as not all insectivorous mammals are closely related. Most of the Insectivora taxa have been reclassified; those that have not yet been reclassified remain in the order Eulipotyphla. Although individually small, insects exist in enormous numbers - they number over a million described species[4]:1958 and some of those species occur in enormous numbers
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Caves
A cave is a hollow place in the ground,[1][2] specifically a natural underground space large enough for a human to enter. Caves form naturally by the weathering of rock and often extend deep underground. The word cave can also refer to much smaller openings such as sea caves, rock shelters, and grottos, though strictly speaking a cave is exogene, meaning it is deeper than its opening is wide,[3] and a rock shelter is endogene.[4] A cavern is a specific type of cave, naturally formed in soluble rock with the ability to grow speleothems.[5] Speleology
Speleology
is the science of exploration and study of all aspects of caves and the cave environment
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Aestivation
Aestivation
Aestivation
or æstivation (from Latin: aestas, summer, but also spelled estivation in American English) is a state of animal dormancy, similar to hibernation, characterized by inactivity and a lowered metabolic rate, that is entered in response to high temperatures and arid conditions.[1] It takes place during times of heat and dryness, the hot dry season, which are often the summer months. Invertebrate and vertebrate animals are known to enter this state to avoid damage from high temperatures and the risk of desiccation. Both terrestrial and aquatic animals undergo aestivation. Organisms that aestivate appear to be in a fairly "light" state of dormancy, as their physiological state can be rapidly reversed, and the organism can quickly return to a normal state
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Dentition
Dentition
Dentition
pertains to the development of teeth and their arrangement in the mouth. In particular, it is the characteristic arrangement, kind, and number of teeth in a given species at a given age.[1] That is, the number, type, and morpho-physiology (that is, the relationship between the shape and form of the tooth in question and its inferred function) of the teeth of an animal.[2] Animals whose teeth are all of the same type, such as most non-mammalian vertebrates, are said to have homodont dentition, whereas those whose teeth differ morphologically are said to have heterodont dentition. The dentition of animals with two successions of teeth (deciduous, permanent) is referred to as diphyodont, while the dentition of animals with only one set of teeth throughout life is monophyodont
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Vespertilionidae
Vesper bats (family Vespertilionidae), also known as evening bats or common bats, are the largest and best-known family of bats. They belong to the suborder Microchiroptera (microbats). Over 300 species are distributed all over the world, on every continent except Antarctica. It owes its name to the Latin word vespertilio ("bat"), from vesper, meaning "evening".Contents1 Evolution 2 Characteristics 3 Systematics 4 Classification 5 References 6 Further readingEvolution[edit] Molecular data indicate Vespertilionidae diverged from Molossidae in the early Eocene period.[2] The family is thought to have originated somewhere in Laurasia, possibly North America.[3] A recently extinct species, Synemporion keana, is known from the Holocene of Hawaii.[4] Characteristics[edit] Almost all vesper bats are insectivores, exceptions being some Myotis and Pizonyx species that catch fish and the larger Nyctalus species that have been known on occasion to catch small passerine birds in flight
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Sperm
Sperm
Sperm
is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed"). In the types of sexual reproduction known as anisogamy and its subtype oogamy, there is a marked difference in the size of the gametes with the smaller one being termed the "male" or sperm cell. A uniflagellar sperm cell that is motile is referred to as a spermatozoon, whereas a non-motile sperm cell is referred to as a spermatium. Sperm
Sperm
cells cannot divide and have a limited life span, but after fusion with egg cells during fertilization, a new organism begins developing, starting as a totipotent zygote. The human sperm cell is haploid, so that its 23 chromosomes can join the 23 chromosomes of the female egg to form a diploid cell
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Gestation
Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside female viviparous animals. It is typical for mammals, but also occurs for some non-mammals. Mammals during pregnancy can have one or more gestations at the same time (multiple gestations). The time interval of a gestation is called the gestation period. In human obstetrics, gestational age refers to the embryonic or fetal age plus two weeks
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Pteropodidae
Megabats constitute the suborder Megachiroptera, and its only family Pteropodidae of the order Chiroptera (bats) They are also called fruit bats, Old World fruit bats,[1] or, especially the genera Acerodon and Pteropus, flying foxes. Megabats are found in tropical and subtropical areas of Eurasia, Africa, and Oceania.[2][3][4] Compared to insectivorous bats, fruit bats are relatively large and, with some exceptions, do not navigate by echolocation. They are herbivores and rely on their keen senses of sight and smell to locate food.[5]Contents1 Description 2 Loss of echolocation 3 Behavior and ecology3.1 As disease reservoirs4 Classification4.1 List of species5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksDescription[edit]Spectacled flying fox (Pteropus conspicillatus)Most fruit bats are larger than insectivorous bats or Microchiroptera, however there are a number of small fruit bats also
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Megachiroptera
Megabats constitute the suborder Megachiroptera, and its only family Pteropodidae of the order Chiroptera
Chiroptera
(bats) They are also called fruit bats, Old World fruit bats,[1] or, especially the genera Acerodon and Pteropus, flying foxes. Megabats are found in tropical and subtropical areas of Eurasia, Africa, and Oceania.[2][3][4] Compared to insectivorous bats, fruit bats are relatively large and, with some exceptions, do not navigate by echolocation
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