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Resupinatus
RESUPINATUS is a genus of fungi in the family Tricholomataceae . Species are saprobic , and often found growing on the underside of decaying wood or sides of decaying woody substrates. The generic name is derived from the Latin resupinus (bent backward, inverted). CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Species list * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links DESCRIPTIONSpecies in this genus have small fruiting bodies, typically less than 1.5 cm in diameter. Basidiocarps are pleurotoid or cyphelloid in shape, meaning they have a reduced stem, and a flattened cap that is kidney-shaped or circular when viewed from above. Gills are well-developed and radiate outwards from an off-center point of origin or lacking. SPECIES LIST * Resupinatus
Resupinatus
alboniger * Resupinatus
Resupinatus
algidus var
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National Center For Biotechnology Information
The NATIONAL CENTER FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY INFORMATION (NCBI) is part of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
(NIH). The NCBI is located in Bethesda, Maryland and was founded in 1988 through legislation sponsored by Senator Claude Pepper
Claude Pepper
. The NCBI houses a series of databases relevant to biotechnology and biomedicine and is an important resource for bioinformatics tools and services. Major databases include GenBank
GenBank
for DNA
DNA
sequences and PubMed , a bibliographic database for the biomedical literature. Other databases include the NCBI Epigenomics database. All these databases are available online through the Entrez
Entrez
search engine
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Mycologia
1909–present Merger of Journal of Mycology
Mycology
(1885–1908) Mycological Bulletin (1903-1908) FREQUENCY 6/year Impact factor
Impact factor
(2009) 1.587 INDEXING ISSN 0027-5514 (print) 1557-2536 (web) LCCN 57051730 CODEN MYCOAE OCLC
OCLC
NO. 1640733 JSTOR
JSTOR
00275514 LINKS * Journal homepage * Online access * Online archiveMYCOLOGIA is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes papers on all aspects of the fungi , including lichens . It first appeared as a bimonthly journal in January 1909, published by the New York Botanical Garden under the editorship of William Murrill . It became the official journal of the Mycological Society of America , which still publishes it today
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Cytotoxic
CYTOTOXICITY is the quality of being toxic to cells . Examples of toxic agents are an immune cell or some types of venom , e.g. from the puff adder (Bitis arietans) or brown recluse spider (Loxosceles reclusa). CONTENTS * 1 Cell physiology * 2 Measurement * 3 Prediction * 4 In cancer * 5 Immune system * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links CELL PHYSIOLOGYTreating cells with the cytotoxic compound can result in a variety of cell fates. The cells may undergo necrosis , in which they lose membrane integrity and die rapidly as a result of cell lysis . The cells can stop actively growing and dividing (a decrease in cell viability), or the cells can activate a genetic program of controlled cell death (apoptosis ). Cells undergoing necrosis typically exhibit rapid swelling, lose membrane integrity, shut down metabolism and release their contents into the environment
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Lamella (mycology)
A LAMELLA, or GILL, is a papery hymenophore rib under the cap of some mushroom species, most often but not always agarics . The gills are used by the mushrooms as a means of spore dispersal , and are important for species identification . The attachment of the gills to the stem is classified based on the shape of the gills when viewed from the side, while color, crowding and the shape of individual gills can also be important features. Additionally, gills can have distinctive microscopic or macroscopic features. For instance, Lactarius
Lactarius
species typically seep latex from their gills. It was originally believed that all gilled fungi were Agaricales
Agaricales
, but as fungi were studied in more detail, some gilled species were demonstrated not to be. It is now clear that this is a case of convergent evolution (i.e. gill-like structures evolved separately) rather than being an anatomic feature that evolved only once
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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PubMed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed
PubMed
system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore

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Global Biodiversity Information Facility
The GLOBAL BIODIVERSITY INFORMATION FACILITY (GBIF) is an international organisation that focuses on making scientific data on biodiversity available via the Internet
Internet
using web services . The data are provided by many institutions from around the world; GBIF's information architecture makes these data accessible and searchable through a single portal. Data available through the GBIF portal are primarily distribution data on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes for the world, and scientific names data. The mission of the Global Biodiversity
Biodiversity
information Facility (GBIF) is to facilitate free and open access to biodiversity data worldwide to underpin sustainable development
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INaturalist
INATURALIST is a citizen science project and online social network of naturalists , citizen scientists, and biologists built on the concept of mapping and sharing observations of biodiversity across the globe. Observations may be added via the website or from a mobile application . The observations provide valuable open data to a variety of scientific research projects, museums, botanic gardens, parks, and other organizations. Users of iNaturalist have contributed over six million observations since its founding in 2008, and the project has been called "a standard-bearer for natural history mobile applications." CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Participation * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYiNaturalist.org began in 2008 as a UC Berkeley School of Information Master's final project of Nate Agrin, Jessica Kline, and Ken-ichi Ueda. Nate Agrin and Ken-ichi Ueda continued work on the site with Sean McGregor, a web developer
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Index Fungorum
INDEX FUNGORUM is an international project to index all formal names (scientific names ) in the Fungus
Fungus
Kingdom . As of 2015 the project is based at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew , one of three partners along with Landcare Research and the Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences . It is somewhat comparable to the International Plant Names Index (IPNI), in which the Royal Botanic Gardens is also involved. A difference is that where IPNI does not indicate correct names , the Index Fungorum does indicate the status of a name. In the returns from the search page a currently correct name is indicated in green, while others are in blue (a few, aberrant usages of names are indicated in red). All names are linked to pages giving the correct name, with lists of synonyms
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Encyclopedia Of Life
The ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE (EOL) is a free, online collaborative encyclopedia intended to document all of the 1.9 million living species known to science. It is compiled from existing databases and from contributions by experts and non-experts throughout the world. It aims to build one "infinitely expandable" page for each species, including video, sound, images, graphics, as well as text. In addition, the Encyclopedia incorporates content from the Biodiversity Heritage Library , which digitizes millions of pages of printed literature from the world's major natural history libraries. The project was initially backed by a US$50 million funding commitment, led by the MacArthur Foundation and the Sloan Foundation , who provided US$20 million and US$5 million, respectively
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Wikidata
WIKIDATA is a collaboratively edited knowledge base operated by the Wikimedia Foundation . It is intended to provide a common source of data which can be used by Wikimedia projects such as , and by anyone else, under a public domain licence. This is similar to the way Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
provides storage for media files and access to those files for all Wikimedia projects, and which are also freely available for reuse. Wikidata
Wikidata
is powered by the software Wikibase . CONTENTS * 1 Concepts * 2 Development history * 2.1 Phase 1 * 2.2 Phase 2 * 2.3 Phase 3 * 3 Reception * 4 Logo * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links CONCEPTS Screenshots Three statements from Wikidata\'s item on the planet Mars. Values include links to other items and to Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons

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Basidiocarp
In fungi , a BASIDIOCARP, BASIDIOME or BASIDIOMA (plural: BASIDIOMATA) is the sporocarp of a basidiomycete , the multicellular structure on which the spore -producing hymenium is borne. Basidiocarps are characteristic of the hymenomycetes ; rusts and smuts do not produce such structures. As with other sporocarps, epigeous (above-ground) basidiocarps that are visible to the naked eye (especially those with a more or less agaricoid morphology) are commonly referred to as mushrooms , while hypogeous (underground) basidiocarps are usually called false truffles . CONTENTS * 1 Structure * 2 Types * 3 See also * 4 External links STRUCTUREAll basidiocarps serve as the structure on which the hymenium is produced. Basidia
Basidia
are found on the surface of the hymenium, and the basidia ultimately produce spores
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Latin Language
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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Agaricales
Amanitales Jülich (1981) Cortinariales Jülich (1981) Entolomatales Jülich (1981) Fistulinales Jülich (1981) Schizophyllales Nuss (1980) The fungal order AGARICALES, also known as GILLED MUSHROOMS (for their distinctive gills ) or EUAGARICS, contains some of the most familiar types of mushrooms . The order has 33 extant families , 413 genera , and over 13000 described species , along with six extinct genera known only from the fossil record. They range from the ubiquitous common mushroom to the deadly destroying angel and the hallucinogenic fly agaric to the bioluminescent jack-o-lantern mushroom . CONTENTS * 1 History, classification and phylogeny * 2 Distribution and habitat * 3 Characteristics * 4 Life cycle * 5 Genera Incertae sedis
Incertae sedis
* 6 See also * 7 References * 7.1 Cited texts * 8 External links HISTORY, CLASSIFICATION AND PHYLOGENY Agaricoid clade Strophariaceae s. str
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