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Republic Of Adygea
A republic (Latin: res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are not inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch.[1][2][3] In American English, the definition of a republic refers specifically to a form of government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body[2] and exercise power according to the rule of law under a constitution, including separation of powers with an elected head of state, referred to as a constitutional republic[4][5][6][7] or representative democracy. [8] As of 2017[update], 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names – not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor is the word "republic" used in the names of all nations with elected governments
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Republicanism
Republicanism
Republicanism
is an ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty.[citation needed] Many countries are "republics" in the sense that they are not monarchies. This article covers only the ideology of republicanism. The word "republic" derives from the Latin noun-phrase res publica, which referred to the system of government that emerged in the 6th century BC following the semi-legendary[1] expulsion of the kings from Rome by Lucius Junius Brutus
Lucius Junius Brutus
and Collatinus.[2] This form of government in the Roman state collapsed in the latter part of the 1st century BCE, giving way to what was a monarchy in form, if not in name. Republics re-occurred subsequently, with, for example, Renaissance
Renaissance
Florence
Florence
or early modern Britain
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Despotism
Despotism
Despotism
(Greek: Δεσποτισμός, Despotismós) is a form of government in which a single entity rules with absolute power. Normally, that entity is an individual, the despot, as in an autocracy, but societies which limit respect and power to specific groups have also been called despotic.[1] Colloquially, the word despot applies pejoratively to those who abuse their power and authority to oppress their populace, subjects, or subordinates. More specifically, the term often applies to a head of state or government
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Timocracy
A timocracy (from Greek τιμή timē, "price, worth" and -κρατία -kratia, "rule")[1]in Aristotle's Politics is a state where only property owners may participate in government. The more extreme forms of timocracy, where power derives entirely from wealth with no regard for social or civic responsibility, may shift in their form and become a plutocracy where the wealthy and powerful use their power to increase their wealth. In Plato's Politics, a state in which Love of wealth,Property and power are the Guiding principles of the rulers[2]. Timocracy and property[edit] Solon
Solon
introduced the ideas of timokratia as a graded oligarchy in his Solonian Constitution for Athens
Athens
in the early 6th century BC. His was the first known deliberately implemented form of timocracy, allocating political rights and economic responsibility depending on membership of one of four tiers of the population
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Meritocracy
Meritocracy (merit, from Latin
Latin
mereō, and -cracy, from Ancient Greek κράτος kratos "strength, power") is a political philosophy which holds that certain things, such as economic goods or power, should be vested in individuals on the basis of talent, effort and achievement.[1] Advancement in such a system is based on performance, as measured through examination or demonstrated achievement
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Technocracy
Technocracy is a system of governance where decision-makers are selected on the basis of their expertise in their areas of responsibility, particularly scientific knowledge. This system explicitly contrasts with the notion that elected representatives should be the primary decision-makers in government,[1] though it does not necessarily imply eliminating elected representatives. Leadership skills for decision-makers are selected on the basis of specialized knowledge and performance, rather than political affiliations or parliamentary skills.[2] The term technocracy was originally used to advocate the application of the scientific method to solving social problems. Concern could be given to sustainability within the resource base, instead of monetary profitability, so as to ensure continued operation of all social-industrial functions. In its most extreme sense technocracy is an entire government run as a technical or engineering problem and is mostly hypothetical
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Geniocracy
Geniocracy
Geniocracy
is the framework for a system of government which was first proposed by Raël (leader of the International Raëlian Movement) in 1977 and which advocates problem-solving, creative intelligence and compassion as criteria for governance.[1]A series of articles on the Raëlian MovementFounder • History Beliefs & practices Cloning (Clonaid) FundsViews on: Politics Economics CosmologyThis box:view talk editContents1 Definition1.1 Justifying the method of selection2 History2.1 Origins in Ancient Greece3 Agenda3.1 Response to criticism 3.2 Status 3.3
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Noocracy
Noocracy (/noʊˈɒkrəsi/ or /ˈnoʊ.əkrəsi/), or "aristocracy of the wise", as defined by Plato, is a social and political system that is "based on the priority of human mind", according to Vladimir Vernadsky.[citation needed] It was also further developed in the writings of Pierre Teilhard de Chardin.[citation needed]Contents1 Etymology 2 Development 3 Publications 4 Criticisms 5 See also 6 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The word itself is derived from Greek nous, Gen
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Kritarchy
Kritarchy, also called kritocracy, is a system of rule by judges (Hebrew: שופטים‬, shoftim) in the tribal confederacy of ancient Israel during the period of time described in the Book of Judges, following Joshua's conquest of Canaan
Canaan
and prior to the united monarchy under Saul.[1] Because it is a compound of the Greek words κριτής, krites ("judge") and ἄρχω, árkhō ("to rule"), its use has expanded to cover rule by judges in the modern sense as well, as in the case of Somalia, ruled by judges with the polycentric legal tradition of xeer,[2] and arguably the Islamic Courts Union[citation needed] and in the fictional regime of Mega-city One, the focus of setting for the Judge
Judge
Dredd franchise. References[edit]^ Dictionary.com ^ A Peaceful Ferment in Somalia: Publications: The Independent InstituteThis government-related article is a stub
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Particracy
Particracy (also 'partitocracy', 'partocracy', or 'partitocrazia') is a de facto form of government where one or more political parties dominate the political process, rather than citizens and/or individual politicians.[citation needed] As argued by Italian political scientist Mauro Calise in 1994, the term is often derogatory, implying that parties have too much power—in a similar vein, in premodern times it was often argued that democracy was merely rule by the demos, or a poorly educated and easily misled mob
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Ergatocracy
Ergatocracy (from the Greek word ἐργάτης, ergates, "worker" and the suffix -cracy, "government") is a type of government dominated by the labour and solidarities similar to communist beliefs. It refers to a society ruled by the working class. The term was coined by Eden and Cedar Paul in their book Creative Revolution: A Study of Communist Ergatocracy.[1][2] References[edit]^ Paul, Cedar; Paul, Eden (1920). Creative revolution:. new York: Thomas Seltzer. Retrieved 30 May 2015.  ^ https://bogdanovlibrary.files.wordpress.com/2016/08/2016-08-14-biggart-bogdanov-kultintern.pdf"ergatocracy." Dictionary.com's 21st Century Lexicon. Dictionary.com, LLC. 21 Jan. 2015. <Dictionary.com http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ergatocracy>.This government-related article is a stub
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Netocracy
Netocracy was a term invented by the editorial board of the American technology magazine Wired in the early 1990s. A portmanteau of Internet
Internet
and aristocracy, netocracy refers to a perceived global upper-class that bases its power on a technological advantage and networking skills, in comparison to what is portrayed as a bourgeoisie of a gradually diminishing importance. The concept was later picked up and redefined by the Swedish philosophers Alexander Bard
Alexander Bard
and Jan Söderqvist
Jan Söderqvist
for their book Netocracy — The New Power Elite and Life After Capitalism (originally published in Swedish in 2000 as Nätokraterna - boken om det elektroniska klassamhället, published in English by Reuters/Pearsall UK in 2002). The netocracy concept has been compared with Richard Florida's concept of the creative class
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Autocracy
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).[1] Absolute monarchies (such as Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Brunei
Brunei
and Swaziland) and dictatorships (such as North Korea
North Korea
and Syria) are the main modern-day forms of autocracy. In earlier times, the term "autocrat" was coined as a favorable feature of the ruler, having some connection to the concept of "lack of conflicts of interests" as well as an indication of grandeur and power
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Dictatorship
Dictatorship
Dictatorship
is a system of government in which a country or a group of countries is ruled by a single party or individual (a dictator) or by a polity and power is exercised through various mechanisms to ensure that the entity's power remains strong.[1][2] A dictatorship is a type of authoritarianism in which politicians regulate nearly every aspect of the public and private behavior of citizens. Dictatorship and totalitarian societies generally employ political propaganda to decrease the influence of proponents of alternative governing systems. In the past, different religious tactics were used by dictators to maintain their rule, such as the monarchical system in the West. In the 19th and 20th centuries, traditional monarchies gradually declined and disappeared
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Kraterocracy
Might makes right is an aphorism with several potential meanings (in order of increasing complexity):English: The idea associated with the phrase connotes that a society's view of right and wrong is determined, like its perspective on history, by those currently in power. The term can be used in the descriptive, rather than prescriptive way, in the same sense that people say that "History is written by the victors". Because every person labels what they think is good for themselves as right, only those who are able to defeat their enemies can push their idea of what is right into fruition. The phrase is most often used in negative assessments of expressions of power.Kratocracy: According to Montague,[1] Kratocracy or kraterocracy (from the Greek κρατερός krateros, meaning "strong") is a government by those who are strong enough to seize power through coercive power, social persuasion, or deceptive cunning
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Military Dictatorship
A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government different from civilian dictatorship for a number of reasons: their motivations for seizing power, the institutions through which they organize their rule and the ways in which they leave power. Often viewing itself as saving the nation from the corrupt or myopic civilian politicians, a military dictatorship justifies its position as "neutral" arbiters on the basis of their membership within the armed forces. For example, many juntas adopt titles, such as "National Redemption Council", "Committee of National Restoration", or "National Liberation Committee"
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