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Ren Huan
Ren Huan (Chinese: 任圜; died 927) was a general and official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period
state Later Tang
Later Tang
(and Later Tang's predecessor state Jin). He served as a chancellor during the reign of Later Tang's second emperor Li Siyuan, but became embroiled in a power struggle with Li Siyuan's powerful chief of staff An Chonghui. He eventually was forced into retirement, but An eventually had Li Siyuan order him to commit suicide.Contents1 Background 2 During Jin 3 During Later Tang3.1 During Li Cunxu's reign 3.2 During Li Siyuan's reign4 Notes and referencesBackground[edit] It is not known when Ren Huan was born, but it was known that his family was originally from Sanyuan (三原, in modern Xianyang, Shaanxi). His grandfather Ren Qing (任清) served as a deputy mayor of Chengdu
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Chinese Name
Chinese personal names are names used by those from mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, and the Chinese diaspora
Chinese diaspora
overseas. Due to China's historical dominance of East Asian culture, many names used in Korea and Vietnam are adaptations of Chinese names, or have historical roots in Chinese, with appropriate adaptation to accommodate linguistic differences. Modern Chinese names consist of a surname known as xing (姓, xìng), which comes first and is usually but not always monosyllabic, followed by a personal name called ming (名, míng), which is nearly always mono- or disyllabic
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Later Liang (Five Dynasties)
The Later Liang (simplified Chinese: 后梁; traditional Chinese: 後梁; pinyin: Hòu Liáng) (1 June 907 – 19 November 923) was one of the Five Dynasties
Five Dynasties
during the Five Dynasties
Five Dynasties
and Ten Kingdoms period in China. It was founded by Zhu Wen, posthumously known as Taizu of Later Liang, after he forced the last emperor of the Tang dynasty to abdicate in his favour (and then murdered him)
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Chinese Surname
Chinese surnames are used by Han Chinese
Han Chinese
and Sinicized ethnic groups in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Malaysia, Brunei, Taiwan, Korea, Singapore, Indonesia, Vietnam
Vietnam
and among overseas Chinese communities. In ancient times two types of surnames existed, namely xing (Chinese: 姓; pinyin: xìng) or clan names, and shi (Chinese: 氏; pinyin: shì) or lineage names. Chinese family names are patrilineal, passed from father to children (in adoption, the adoptee usually also takes the same surname). Women do not normally change their surnames upon marriage, except in places with more Western influences such as Hong Kong. Traditionally Chinese surnames have been exogamous.[1][2] The colloquial expressions laobaixing (老百姓; lit. "old hundred surnames") and bǎixìng (百姓, lit
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Zhao (Five Dynasties)
Zhao (趙, ~910–~921) was a state early in the Five Dynasties
Five Dynasties
period of the history of China in what is now central Hebei. The ancestors of Zhao's only prince, Wang Rong, had long governed the region as military governors (Jiedushi) of the Tang dynasty's Chengde Circuit (Chinese: 成德, headquartered in modern Shijiazhuang, Hebei), and after the collapse of the Tang in 907, the succeeding Later Liang's founding emperor ("Taizu"), Zhu Wen
Zhu Wen
made Wang, then his vassal, the Prince of Zhao. In 910, when the Emperor tried to directly take over the territory of Zhao and its neighboring Yiwu Circuit (Chinese: 義武, headquartered in modern Baoding, Hebei), Wang Rong and Yiwu's military governor Wang Chuzhi turned against the Later Liang, aligning themselves with Later Liang's archenemy, Jin's prince, Li Cunxu, instead
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Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang
([ʂɨ̌.tɕjá.ʈʂwáŋ]; Chinese: 石家庄) is the capital and largest city of North China's Hebei
Hebei
Province.[1] Administratively a prefecture-level city, it is about 263 kilometres (163 mi) southwest of Beijing,[2] and it administers eight districts, two county-level cities, and 12 counties. As of 2015 it had a total population of 10,701,600[3] with 4,303,700 in the central (or metro) area comprising the seven districts and the county of Zhengding
Zhengding
largely conurbated with the Shijiazhuang metropolitan area as urbanization continues to proliferate.[4] Shijiazhuang's total population ranked twelfth in mainland China.[5] Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang
experienced dramatic growth after the founding of the People's Republic of China
China
in 1949
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Hebei
Baoding
Baoding
(1928-58, 1966) Tianjin
Tianjin
(1958-65)
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Li Cunjin
Li Cunjin (李存進) (857–922[2]), originally Sun Chongjin (孫重進), was a military general in imperial China's Tang Dynasty, and later the Jin territory in the ensuing Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period after Tang's collapse. He served the Shatuo
Shatuo
leaders Li Keyong — who adopted him as a son — and Li Keyong's biological son and successor Li Cunxu. He died in the battles against Zhang Chujin. Biography[edit] Sun Chongjin was a native of the northern territory called Zhenwu (振武; around modern Hohhot, Inner Mongolia). He began following Li Keyong when the latter attacked Shuozhou
Shuozhou
(in modern Shanxi) and became an adopted son some time later with the new name Li Cunjin
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Li Cunshen
Li, Li-৯, li, or LI may refer to:Contents1 Businesses and organizations 2 Names 3 Places 4 Science and technology 5 Other uses 6 See alsoBusinesses and organizations[edit]Liberal International, a political federation for liberal parties The Light Infantry, a British Army infantry regiment Linux International, an international non-profit organization Lyndon Institute, an independent high school in the U.S
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Naming Taboo
A naming taboo is a cultural taboo against speaking or writing the given names of exalted persons in China
China
and neighboring nations in the ancient Chinese cultural sphere.Contents1 Kinds of naming taboo 2 Methods to avoid offence 3 Naming taboo
Naming taboo
in history 4 In other countries 5 See also 6 References 7 Further readingKinds of naming taboo[edit]The naming taboo of the state (国讳; 國諱) discouraged the use of the emperor's given name and those of his ancestors. For example, during the Qin Dynasty, Qin Shi Huang's given name Zheng (政) was avoided, and the first month of the year "Zheng Yue" (政月: the administrative month) was rewritten into "Zheng Yue" (正月: the upright month) and furthermore renamed as "Duan Yue" (端月: the proper/upright month). The strength of this taboo was reinforced by law; transgressors could expect serious punishment for writing an emperor's name without modifications
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Handan
Handan
Handan
is a prefecture-level city located in the southwestern part of Hebei
Hebei
province, China. It borders Xingtai
Xingtai
on the north, and the provinces of Shanxi
Shanxi
on the west, Henan
Henan
on the south and Shandong
Shandong
on the east
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Zhu Zhen
Zhu Zhen (朱瑱) (20 October 888[2][3] – 18 November 923[3][4]), often referred to in traditional histories as Emperor Mo of Later Liang (後梁末帝, "last emperor") and sometimes by his princely title Prince of Jun (均王), né Zhu Youzhen (朱友貞), known as Zhu Huang (朱鍠) from 913 to 915, was the emperor of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Later Liang from 913 to 923. He was the third and last emperor of Later Liang, the first of the Five Dynasties. He ordered his general Huangfu Lin (皇甫麟) to kill him in 923 when Emperor Zhuangzong of Later Tang (Li Cunxu), the emperor of Later Liang's enemy Later Tang to the north, was on the cusp of capturing the Later Liang capital Daliang. His death marked the end of Later Liang, which was to be the longest among the Five Dynasties
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Zhang Chujin
Zhang Chujin (張處瑾) (died 922) was a ruler of Chengde Circuit (成德, headquartered in modern Shijiazhuang, Hebei, also known as Zhao) early in the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. His father Zhang Wenli had taken over the circuit after a mutiny that Zhang Wenli encouraged resulted in the death of Zhang Wenli's adoptive father Wang Rong the Prince of Zhao in 921. Zhang Wenli subsequently died during the campaign waged by Wang Rong's ally Li Cunxu the Prince of Jin to avenge Wang Rong. Zhang Chujin took over the leadership of the circuit after Zhang Wenli's death and tried to hold out against Jin forces, but was captured and killed in 922. Background[edit] It is not known when or where Zhang Chujin was born
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Luoyang
Luoyang, formerly romanized as Loyang, is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River
Yellow River
in Central China. It is a prefecture-level city in western Henan
Henan
province. It borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
to the east, Pingdingshan
Pingdingshan
to the southeast, Nanyang to the south, Sanmenxia
Sanmenxia
to the west, Jiyuan
Jiyuan
to the north, and Jiaozuo
Jiaozuo
to the northeast
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Ladies In Waiting
A lady-in-waiting or court lady is a female personal assistant at a court, royal or feudal, attending on a royal woman or a high-ranking noblewoman. Historically, in Europe, a lady-in-waiting was often a noblewoman, but of lower rank than the woman on whom she attended. Although she may or may not have received compensation for the service she rendered, a lady-in-waiting was considered more of a companion to her mistress than a servant. In other parts of the world outside Europe, the lady-in-waiting, often referred to as palace woman, was often in practice a servant or a slave rather than a high-ranking woman, but still had about the same tasks, functioning as companion and secretary to her mistress
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Former Shu
Great Shu (Chinese: 大蜀, Pinyin: Dàshǔ) called in retrospect Former Shu
Former Shu
(Chinese: 前蜀, Pinyin: Qiánshǔ) or occasionally Wang Shu (王蜀), was one of the Ten Kingdoms
Ten Kingdoms
formed during the chaotic period between the rules of the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
and the Song dynasty. It existed in 907–925 CE
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