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Religion In Belarus
Orthodox Christianity is the main religion practised in Belarus
Belarus
, with a sizeable Catholic
Catholic
minority. Before 1917 Belarus
Belarus
had 2,466 religious communities, including 1,650 Orthodox, 127 Catholic, 657 Jewish, 32 Protestant
Protestant
, and several Muslim communities, the Muslims of Belarus
Belarus
are without exception followers of Sunni Islam
Islam
. Under the communists , the activities of these communities were severely restricted. Many religious communities were destroyed and their leaders exiled or executed; the remaining communities were sometimes co-opted by the government for its own ends, as in the effort to instill patriotism during World War II
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Exarchate
An EXARCHATE is any territorial jurisdiction (secular or ecclesiastical) whose ruler is described as an exarch
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Moscow Patriarchy
The following is a LIST OF METROPOLITANS AND PATRIARCHS OF MOSCOW , spiritual heads of the Russian Orthodox Church , since 1308. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Metropolitans of Kiev and all Russia (permanent residence in Moscow, 1325–1461) * 3 Metropolitans of Moscow and all Russia (1461–1589) * 4 Patriarchs of Moscow and all Russia (1589–1721) * 5 Metropolitans and archbishops of Moscow (1721–1917) * 6 Patriarchs of Moscow and all Russia (restored, 1917–present) * 7 See also HISTORY Main article: History of the Russian Orthodox Church The history of the Russian Orthodox Church begins with the Christianization of Kievan Rus\' at Kiev , the date of which is commonly given as 988; however, the evidence surrounding this event is contested. In 1316 the Metropolitan of Kiev changed his see to the city of Vladimir , and in 1322 moved again to Moscow . In 1589, the see was elevated to a Patriarchate
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Russian Orthodox Church
Coordinates : 55°42′40″N 37°37′45″E / 55.71111°N 37.62917°E / 55.71111; 37.62917 Russian Orthodox Church ( Moscow
Moscow
Patriarchate
Patriarchate
) The
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Kazimierz Świątek
KAZIMIERZ CARDINAL ŚWIąTEK (Belarusian : Казімір Свёнтак, KAZIMIR SVIONTAK; 21 October 1914 – 21 July 2011) was a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who was most known for his resistance to Cold War-era Soviet Communism and for his service in Minsk, Belarus . Cardinal Swiatek was the former Metropolitan Archbishop of Minsk-Mohilev , and Apostolic Administrator of Pinsk . Card.Kazimierz Świątek visits seminarists in Esztergom, Hungary in 1996 Card.Kazimierz Świątek's autograph signed in Esztergom, Hungary (25 February 1996) Świątek was born to Polish parents in the municipality of Walk, in what was then the Russian Empire , the present-day municipality of Valga, Estonia . His family was deported to Siberia during the Russian Revolution . His father died fighting in the Polish-Soviet War . The future Cardinal lived in newly independent Poland from 1922
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Belarusian Orthodox Church
BELARUSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH (Russian : Белорусская Православная Церковь, Belarusian : Беларуская праваслаўная царква) is the official name of the BELARUSIAN EXARCHATE (Russian : Белорусский экзархат) of the Russian Orthodox Church in Belarus
Belarus
. It represents the union of Russian orthodox eparchies on the territory of Belarus
Belarus
and is the largest religious organization in the country, uniting the predominant majority of its Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Christians. The leader of the Belarusian Orthodox Church
Belarusian Orthodox Church
is Metropolitan Paul . The church enjoys a much smaller degree of autonomy compared to the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate , which is a semi-autonomous entity associated with the Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church

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Eastern Orthodoxy
The EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCH, also known as the ORTHODOX CHURCH, or officially as the ORTHODOX CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the second-largest Christian church and one of the oldest extant religious institutions in the world. The Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church teaches that it is the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church established by Jesus
Jesus
Christ in his Great Commission to the apostles. It practices what it understands to be the original Christian faith and maintains the sacred tradition passed down from the apostles . The Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church is a communion of autocephalous churches , each typically governed by a Holy Synod . It teaches that all bishops are equal by virtue of their ordination , and has no central governing structure analogous to the Papacy in the Roman Catholic Church
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Protestant Reformation
Waldensians · Savonarola · Lollards · Western Schism · Hussites · Northern Renaissance
Northern Renaissance
· German mysticism Start of the
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Heresy
HERESY (/ˈhɛɹəsi/ ) is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs. A HERETIC is a proponent of such claims or beliefs. Heresy
Heresy
is distinct from both apostasy , which is the explicit renunciation of one's religion, principles or cause, and blasphemy , which is an impious utterance or action concerning God or sacred things. The term is usually used to refer to violations of important religious teachings, but is used also of views strongly opposed to any generally accepted ideas. It is used in particular in reference to Christianity , Judaism
Judaism
, and Islam . In certain historical Christian, Islamic and Jewish cultures, among others, espousing ideas deemed heretical has been and in some cases still is subjected not merely to punishments such as excommunication , but even to the death penalty
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Protestantism
PROTESTANTISM is the second largest form of Christianity
Christianity
with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians
Christians
. It originated with the Reformation , a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
. Ever since, Protestants reject the Roman Catholic
Catholic
doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments , but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist
Eucharist
. They emphasize the priesthood of all believers , justification by faith alone (sola fide) rather than by good works , and the highest authority of the Bible
Bible
alone (rather than with sacred tradition ) in faith and morals (sola scriptura )
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Uniate Church
The EASTERN CATHOLIC CHURCHES or ORIENTAL CATHOLIC CHURCHES, also called the EASTERN-RITE CATHOLIC CHURCHES, GREEK CATHOLIC CHURCHES, and in some historical cases UNIATE CHURCHES, are twenty-three Eastern Christian particular churches sui iuris in full communion with the Pope
Pope
in Rome , as part of the worldwide Catholic Church . Headed by patriarchs , metropolitans , and major archbishops , the Eastern Catholic Churches are governed in accordance with the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches , although each church also has its own canons and laws on top of this, and the preservation of their own traditions is explicitly encouraged
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Greek Catholic
The EASTERN CATHOLIC CHURCHES or ORIENTAL CATHOLIC CHURCHES, also called the EASTERN-RITE CATHOLIC CHURCHES, Greek Catholic Churches, and in some historical cases Uniate Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian
Eastern Christian
particular churches sui iuris in full communion with the Pope
Pope
in Rome , as part of the worldwide Catholic Church
Catholic Church
. Headed by patriarchs , metropolitans , and major archbishops , the Eastern Catholic Churches are governed in accordance with the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches , although each church also has its own canons and laws on top of this, and the preservation of their own traditions is explicitly encouraged
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Navahrudak
NAVAHRUDAK (Belarusian : Навагрудак), more commonly known by its Russian name NOVOGRUDOK (Новогрудок) (Lithuanian : Naugardukas; Polish : Nowogródek; Yiddish
Yiddish
: נאָווהאַרדאָק‎ Novhardok) is a city in the Grodno Region of Belarus
Belarus
. In the 14th century it was an episcopal see of the Metropolitanate of Lithuania . It is a possible first capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
, with Trakai
Trakai
also noted as a possibility. It was later part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
, the Russian Empire and eventually Poland
Poland
until the Soviet invasion of Poland (1939) when the USSR
USSR
annexed the area to the Byelorussian SSR
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Tatars
The TATARS (Russian : татары); ( Tatar
Tatar
: татарлар) are Turkic -speaking people living in Asia and Europe. The name "Tatar" first appears in written form on the Kul Tigin monument as 𐱃𐱃𐰺 (TaTaR). Historically, the term "Tatars" was applied to a variety of Turco-Mongol
Turco-Mongol
semi-nomadic empires who controlled the vast region known as Tartary . More recently, however, the term refers more narrowly to people who speak one of the Turkic languages. The Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
, established under Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
in 1206, allied with the Tatars. Under the leadership of Genghis Khan's grandson Batu Khan (c. 1207–1255), the Mongols
Mongols
moved westwards, driving with them many of the Mongol
Mongol
tribes toward the plains of Russia
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Volga Region
VOLGA REGION (Russian : Поволжье, POVOLZHYE, literally: "along the Volga") is a historical region in Russia
Russia
that encompasses territories adjacent to the flow of the Volga River
Volga River
. It is usually classified into: * the Upper Volga Region * the Middle Volga Region (approximately from the mouth of the Oka to the mouth of the Kama ) * the Lower Volga RegionAnother notable distinction contrasts the elevated right-bank side (featuring the Volga Upland ) and the left bank side or Trans-Volga Region , Transvolga (Russian : Заволжье, Zavolzhye), which consists of the elevated High Transvolga and the lowland Low Transvolga. Idel-Ural region is also defined within Povolzhye
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Christianity In Belarus
The majority of the population of Belarus is Eastern Orthodox . The majority of Orthodox Christians in Belarus belong to the Belarusian Orthodox Church , which remains a unit of the Russian Orthodox Church . There is a Belarusian Autocephalous Orthodox Church which is not officially registered. There are about 1.7 million Catholics in the country (around 17% of the total population). The Catholic archdiocese is the archdiocese Minsk and Mahiliou . The other dioceses are Hrodna , Pinsk and Vitsebsk . Home worship is prohibited in Belarus. Several Greek Catholic as well as several Protestant churches have been prohibited to register with official authority. There are more than 500,000 Protestants in Belarus (5% of the population). Baptists affiliated to the Baptist World Alliance number more than 11000 in 1998. There were 170 Pentecostal congregations in 1993. Lutherans belong to the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Central Asia
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