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Relativistic Mass
Mass
Mass
in special relativity incorporates the general understandings from the laws of motion of special relativity along with its concept of mass–energy equivalence. The word mass is given two meanings in special relativity: one (rest or invariant mass, and its equivalent rest energy) is an invariant quantity which is the same for all observers in all reference frames; the other (relativistic mass or the equivalent total energy of the body) is dependent on the velocity of the observer. The term relativistic mass tends not to be used in particle and nuclear physics and is often avoided by writers on special relativity.[1] They do, however, talk about the (total) energy of a body, which is the equivalent to its relativistic mass, rather than the rest energy equivalent to its rest mass. The measurable inertia and gravitational attraction of a body in a given frame of reference is determined by its relativistic mass, not merely its rest mass
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European Journal Of Physics
The European Journal of Physics
Physics
is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal dedicated to maintaining and improving the standard of physics education in higher education. The journal, published since 1980, is now published by IOP Publishing
IOP Publishing
on behalf of the European Physical Society
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Euclidean Norm
In linear algebra, functional analysis, and related areas of mathematics, a norm is a function that assigns a strictly positive length or size to each vector in a vector space—save for the zero vector, which is assigned a length of zero. A seminorm, on the other hand, is allowed to assign zero length to some non-zero vectors (in addition to the zero vector). A norm must also satisfy certain properties pertaining to scalability and additivity which are given in the formal definition below. A simple example is two dimensional Euclidean space
Euclidean space
R2 equipped with the "Euclidean norm" (see below) Elements in this vector space (e.g., (3, 7)) are usually drawn as arrows in a 2-dimensional cartesian coordinate system starting at the origin (0, 0). The Euclidean norm assigns to each vector the length of its arrow. Because of this, the Euclidean norm is often known as the magnitude. A vector space on which a norm is defined is called a normed vector space
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Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
(/ˈaɪnstaɪn/ EYEN-styne;[4] German: [ˈalbɛɐ̯t ˈʔaɪnʃtaɪn] (listen); 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist[5] who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).[3][6]:274 His work is also known for its influence on the philosophy of science.[7][8] He is best known to the general public for his mass–energy equivalence formula E
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System Of Units
A system of measurement is a collection of units of measurement and rules relating them to each other. Systems of measurement have historically been important, regulated and defined for the purposes of science and commerce. Systems of measurement in modern use include the metric system, the imperial system, and United States
United States
customary units.Contents1 History1.1 Current practice2 Metric system 3 Imperial and US customary units 4 Natural units 5 Non-standard units5.1 Area 5.2 Energy6 Units of currency 7 Historical systems of measurement7.1 Africa 7.2 Asia 7.3 Europe 7.4 North America 7.5 Oceania 7.6 South America8 See also8.1 Conversion tables9 Notes and references 10 Bibliography 11 External linksHistory[edit] Main article: History of measurement The French Revolution
French Revolution
gave rise to the metric system, and this has spread around the world, replacing most customary units of measure
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Natural Unit System
In physics, natural units are physical units of measurement based only on universal physical constants. For example, the elementary charge e is a natural unit of electric charge, and the speed of light c is a natural unit of speed. A purely natural system of units has all of its units defined in this way, and usually such that the numerical values of the selected physical constants in terms of these units are exactly dimensionless 1. These constants are then typically omitted from mathematical expressions of physical laws, and while this has the apparent advantage of simplicity, it may entail a loss of clarity due to the loss of information for dimensional analysis. It precludes the interpretation of an expression in terms of fundamental physical constants, such e and c, unless it is known which units (in dimensionful units) the expression is supposed to have
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Energy
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.[note 1] Energy
Energy
is a conserved quantity; the law of conservation of energy states that energy can be converted in form, but not created or destroyed. The SI unit of energy is the joule, which is the energy transferred to an object by the work of moving it a distance of 1 metre against a force of 1 newton. Common forms of energy include the kinetic energy of a moving object, the potential energy stored by an object's position in a force field (gravitational, electric or magnetic), the elastic energy stored by stretching solid objects, the chemical energy released when a fuel burns, the radiant energy carried by light, and the thermal energy due to an object's temperature. Mass
Mass
and energy are closely related
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Momentum
In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object. It can be more generally stated as a measure of how hard it is to stop a moving object. It is a three-dimensional vector quantity, possessing a magnitude and a direction. If m is an object's mass and v is the velocity (also a vector), then the momentum is p = m v , displaystyle mathbf p =mmathbf v , In SI units, it is measured in kilogram meters per second (kg⋅m/s). Newton's second law
Newton's second law
of motion states that a body's rate of change in momentum is equal to the net force acting on it. Momentum
Momentum
depends on the frame of reference, but in any inertial frame it is a conserved quantity, meaning that if a closed system is not affected by external forces, its total linear momentum does not change
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Transverse Mass
The transverse mass is a useful quantity to define for use in particle physics as it is invariant under Lorentz boost
Lorentz boost
along the z direction. In natural units it is: m T 2 = m 2 + p x 2 + p y 2 = E 2 − p z 2 displaystyle m_
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Particle Physics
Particle
Particle
physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation. Although the word "particle" can refer to various types of very small objects (e.g. protons, gas particles, or even household dust), "particle physics" usually investigates the irreducibly smallest detectable particles and the fundamental interactions necessary to explain their behaviour. By our current understanding, these elementary particles are excitations of the quantum fields that also govern their interactions. The currently dominant theory explaining these fundamental particles and fields, along with their dynamics, is called the Standard Model. Thus, modern particle physics generally investigates the Standard Model
Standard Model
and its various possible extensions, e.g
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Four-acceleration
In the theory of relativity, four-acceleration is a four-vector (vector in four-dimensional spacetime) that is analogous to classical acceleration (a three-dimensional vector, see three-acceleration in special relativity). Four-acceleration has applications in areas such as the annihilation of antiprotons, resonance of strange particles and radiation of an accelerated charge.[1]Contents1 Four-acceleration in inertial coordinates 2 Four-acceleration in non-inertial coordinates 3 See also 4 References 5 External links Four-acceleration in inertial coordinates[edit] In inertial coordinates in special relativity, four-acceleration A displaystyle mathbf A is defined as the rate of change in four-velocity U displaystyle mathbf U with respect to the particle's proper time along its worldline
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Max Abraham
Max Abraham
Max Abraham
(German: [ˈaːbʀaham]; 26 March 1875 – 16 November 1922) was a German physicist. Abraham was born in Danzig, Imperial Germany
Germany
(now Gdańsk
Gdańsk
in Poland) to a family of Jewish
Jewish
merchants. His father was Moritz Abraham and his mother was Selma Moritzsohn. Attending the University of Berlin, he studied under Max Planck. He graduated in 1897. For the next three years, Abraham worked as Planck's assistant.[citation needed]. From 1900 to 1909, Abraham worked at Göttingen
Göttingen
as a privatdozent, an unpaid lecturing position. Abraham developed his theory of the electron in 1902, in which he hypothesized that the electron was a perfect sphere with a charge divided evenly around its surface
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Z Particle
The W and Z bosons are together known as the weak or more generally as the intermediate vector bosons. These elementary particles mediate the weak interaction; the respective symbols are W+, W−, and Z. The W bosons have either a positive or negative electric charge of 1 elementary charge and are each other's antiparticles. The Z boson is electrically neutral and is its own antiparticle. The three particles have a spin of 1. The W bosons have a magnetic moment, but the Z has none. All three of these particles are very short-lived, with a half-life of about 6975300000000000000♠3×10−25 s. Their experimental discovery was a triumph for what is now known as the Standard Model
Standard Model
of particle physics. The W bosons are named after the weak force. The physicist Steven Weinberg named the additional particle the "Z particle",[3] and later gave the explanation that it was the last additional particle needed by the model
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Top Quark
The top quark, also known as the t quark (symbol: t) or truth quark, is the most massive of all observed elementary particles. Like all quarks, the top quark is an elementary fermion with spin 1/2, and experiences all four fundamental interactions: gravitation, electromagnetism, weak interactions, and strong interactions. It has an electric charge of +2/3 e. It has a large mass of 172.44 ± 0.13 (stat) ± 0.47 (syst)GeV/c2,[1] which is about the same mass as an atom of tungsten. The antiparticle of the top quark is the top antiquark (symbol: t, sometimes called antitop quark or simply antitop), which differs from it only in that some of its properties have equal magnitude but opposite sign. The top quark interacts primarily by the strong interaction, but can only decay through the weak force. It decays to a W boson
W boson
and either a bottom quark (most frequently), a strange quark, or, on the rarest of occasions, a down quark
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Conservation Of Energy
In physics, the law of Conservation of Energy
Energy
states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant, it is said to be conserved over time.[1] This law means that energy can neither be created nor destroyed; rather, it can only be transformed from one form to another. For instance, chemical energy is converted to kinetic energy when a stick of dynamite explodes
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Lorentz Ether Theory
What is now often called Lorentz ether theory
Lorentz ether theory
(LET) has its roots in Hendrik Lorentz's "theory of electrons", which was the final point in the development of the classical aether theories at the end of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century. Lorentz's initial theory was created between 1892 and 1895 and was based on a completely motionless aether. It explained the failure of the negative aether drift experiments to first order in v/c by introducing an auxiliary variable called "local time" for connecting systems at rest and in motion in the aether. In addition, the negative result of the Michelson–Morley experiment
Michelson–Morley experiment
led to the introduction of the hypothesis of length contraction in 1892
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