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Reinhard Gehlen
Reinhard Gehlen
Reinhard Gehlen
(3 April 1902 – 8 June 1979) was a German general who was chief of the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
Foreign Armies East (FHO) military-intelligence unit during World War II
World War II
(1942–45); spymaster of the anti–Communist Gehlen Organisation for the United States (1946–56); and the first president of the Federal Intelligence Service (Bundesnachrichtendienst, BND) of West Germany
West Germany
(1956–68) during the Cold War. Gehlen became a professional soldier in 1920 during the Weimar Republic. In 1942, he became chief of FHO, the German Army's military intelligence unit on the Eastern Front (1941–45). He achieved the rank of major general before being sacked by Adolf Hitler because of the FHO’s pessimistically accurate intelligence reports about Red Army superiority
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Erfurt
Erfurt
Erfurt
(German pronunciation: [ˈɛʁfʊʁt] ( listen)[2]) is the capital and largest city in the state of Thuringia, central Germany. It lies in the southern part of the Thuringian Basin, within the wide valley of the Gera
Gera
river. It is located 100 km (62 mi) south-west of Leipzig, 300 km (186 mi) south-west of Berlin, 400 km (249 mi) north of Munich
Munich
and 250 km (155 mi) north-east of Frankfurt. Together with neighbouring cities Weimar
Weimar
and Jena
Jena
it forms the central metropolitan area of Thuringia
Thuringia
with approximately 500,000 inhabitants. Erfurt's old town is one of the most intact medieval cities in Germany[citation needed] having survived World War II
World War II
with little damage
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Adolf Heusinger
General
General
Adolf Heusinger
Adolf Heusinger
(August 4, 1897 – November 30, 1982) was a German general who served as head of the West German military from 1957 to 1961 and as Chairman of the NATO
NATO
Military Committee from 1961 to 1964. Heusinger joined the German Army as a volunteer in 1915 and later became a professional soldier. He was promoted to lieutenant-general during World War II
World War II
and served as acting Chief of the General
General
Staff of the Army for two weeks in 1944, and was head of the military cartography office when the war ended.Contents1 Biography1.1 Early career 1.2 World War II 1.3 Post-World War II2 References 3 Further reading 4 External linksBiography[edit] Early career[edit] Heusinger was born in Holzminden, in the Duchy of Brunswick, German Empire
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Reichswehr
The Reichswehr
Reichswehr
(English: Realm Defence) formed the military organisation of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when it was united with the new Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
(Defence Force).Contents1 Founding 2 State within the state 3 Creation of the Wehrmacht 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksFounding[edit] At the end of World War I, the forces of the German Empire
German Empire
had mostly split up, the men making their way home individually or in small groups. Many of them joined the Freikorps
Freikorps
(Free Corps), a collection of volunteer paramilitary units that were involved in suppressing the German Revolution
German Revolution
and border clashes between 1918 and 1923. The Reichswehr
Reichswehr
was limited to a standing army of 100,000 men,[1] and a navy of 15,000
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Captain (Land)
The army rank of captain (from the French capitaine) is a commissioned officer rank historically corresponding to the command of a company of soldiers. The rank is also used by some air forces and marine forces. Today, a captain is typically either the commander or second-in-command of a company or artillery battery (or United States Army cavalry troop or Commonwealth squadron). In the Chinese People's Liberation Army, a captain may also command a company, or be the second-in-command of a battalion. In NATO
NATO
countries, the rank of captain is described by the code OF-2 and is one rank above an OF-1 (lieutenant or first lieutenant) and one below an OF-3 (major or commandant)
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German General Staff
The German General Staff, originally the Prussian General Staff and officially Great General Staff (Großer Generalstab), was a full-time body at the head of the Prussian Army
Prussian Army
and later, the German Army, responsible for the continuous study of all aspects of war, and for drawing up and reviewing plans for mobilization or campaign. It existed unofficially from 1806, and was formally established by law in 1814, the first general staff in existence. It was distinguished by the formal selection of its officers by intelligence and proven merit rather than patronage or wealth, and by the exhaustive and rigorously structured training which its staff officers undertook
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German Attack On Poland
German and Soviet victoryBeginning of World War IITerritorial changes Polish territory divided among Germany, the Soviet Union, Lithuania and Slovakia
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Walther Von Brauchitsch
World War IMeuse-Argonne Offensive Battle of VerdunWorld War IIOperation Barbarossa Battle of France Invasion of PolandPersonal DetailsBorn (1881-10-04)4 October 1881 Berlin, German EmpireDied 18 October 1948(1948-10-18) (aged 67) Hamburg, Allied-occupied GermanyBuried SalzgitterSpouse(s) Elizabeth von Karstedt (m. 1910; div. 1938)Charlotte Rueffer (m. 1938)Children 3Walther von Brauchitsch (4 October 1881 – 18 October 1948) was a German field marshal and the Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
of the German Army in the early years of World War II
World War II
during the Nazi era. Born into an aristocratic military family, Brauchitsch entered army service in 1901
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Franz Halder
World War IWorld War IIOperation Weserübung Battle of France Invasion of Poland Operation BarbarossaAwards Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross Franz Halder
Franz Halder
(30 June 1884 – 2 April 1972) was a German general and the chief of the Oberkommando des Heeres
Oberkommando des Heeres
staff (OKH, Army High Command) from 1938 until September 1942, when he was dismissed after frequent disagreements with Adolf Hitler. Until December 1941 Halder's military position corresponded to the old Chief of the General Staff position, which during World War I
World War I
had been the highest military office in the German Imperial Army. Halder's diary during his time as chief of OKH
OKH
General Staff
General Staff
has been a source for authors that have written about such subjects as Hitler, World War II, and the Nazi Party
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Battle Of Stalingrad
Decisive Soviet victory[1]Destruction of the German 6th ArmyTerritorial changes Expulsion of the Germans from the Caucasus, reversing their gains from the 1942 Summer CampaignBelligerents Germany  Romania  Italy  Hungary  Croatia Soviet UnionCommanders and leaders Adolf Hitler Friedrich Paulus  Erich von Manstein W.F. von Richthofen Petre Dumitrescu C. Constantinescu Italo Gariboldi Gusztáv Jány Georgy Zhukov Nikolay Voronov A.M. Vasilevsky Andrey Yeryomenko Nikita Khrushchev K.K
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Henning Von Tresckow
Hermann Henning Karl Robert von Tresckow (10 January 1901 – 21 July 1944) was an officer in the German Army who helped organize German resistance against Adolf Hitler. He attempted to assassinate Hitler on 13 March 1943 and drafted the Valkyrie plan for a coup against the German government
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Claus Von Stauffenberg
World War IIInvasion of Poland Battle of France Operation Barbarossa Tunisia CampaignSpouse(s) Nina Schenk Gräfin von StauffenbergRelationsParentsAlfred Schenk Graf
Graf
von Stauffenberg Caroline
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20 July Plot
4 killed 13 injuredPeople present at the 20 July conferenceOutcome   VictimsKilled4Seriously injured3Injured10Slightly injured7On 20 July 1944, Claus von Stauffenberg
Claus von Stauffenberg
and other conspirators attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler, Führer
Führer
of Nazi Germany, inside his Wolf's Lair
Wolf's Lair
field headquarters near Rastenburg, East Prussia. The name Operation Valkyrie, originally referring to part of the conspiracy, has become associated with the entire event. The apparent aim of the assassination attempt was to wrest political control of Germany and its armed forces from the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
(including the SS) and to make peace with the western Allies as soon as possible
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Lieutenant-General
Lieutenant
Lieutenant
general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt. Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages, where the title of lieutenant general was held by the second in command on the battlefield, who was normally subordinate to a captain general. In modern armies, lieutenant general normally ranks immediately below general and above major general; it is equivalent to the navy rank of vice admiral, and in air forces with a separate rank structure, it is equivalent to air marshal
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Berchtesgaden
Berchtesgaden
Berchtesgaden
(German pronunciation: [ˈbɛʁçtəsˌɡaːdn̩]) is a municipality in the Bavarian Alps
Bavarian Alps
of southeastern Germany. It is located in the south district of Berchtesgadener Land
Berchtesgadener Land
in Bavaria, near the border with Austria, some 30 km (19 mi) south of Salzburg
Salzburg
and 180 km (110 mi) southeast of Munich
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Defeatism
Defeatism is the acceptance of defeat without struggle, often with negative connotations. It can be linked to pessimism in psychology.[1]Contents1 History 2 Revolutionary defeatism 3 See also 4 NotesHistory[edit] The term defeatism commonly is used in politics as a descriptor for an ideological stance that considers co-operation with the opposition party. In the military context, in wartime, and especially at the front, defeatism is synonymous with treason. Under military law, a soldier can be accused of being defeatist if he refuses to fight by voicing doubt of the ideological validity of national policy; thus, existential questions such as “Is the war already lost?” and “Is the fight worth the effort?” are defeatism that connote advocacy of an alternative end-to-the war other than military victory. During World War II, Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
unexpectedly dismissed many generals for defeatism
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