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Reginald Fessenden
REGINALD AUBREY FESSENDEN (October 6, 1866 – July 22, 1932) was a Canadian-born inventor, who did a majority of his work in the United States and also claimed U.S. citizenship through his American-born father. During his life he received hundreds of patents in various fields, most notably ones related to radio and sonar . Fessenden is best known for his pioneering work developing radio technology, including the foundations of amplitude modulation (AM) radio. His achievements included the first transmission of speech by radio (1900), and the first two-way radiotelegraphic communication across the Atlantic Ocean (1906). In 1932 he reported that, in late 1906, he also made the first radio broadcast of entertainment and music, although a lack of verifiable details has led to some doubts about this claim
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Oliver Lodge
SIR OLIVER JOSEPH LODGE, FRS (12 June 1851 – 22 August 1940) was a British physicist and writer involved in the development of, and holder of key patents for, radio . He identified electromagnetic radiation independent of Hertz ' proof and at his 1894 Royal Institution lectures ("The Work of Hertz and Some of His Successors"), Lodge demonstrated an early radio wave detector he named the "coherer ". In 1898 he was awarded the "syntonic" (or tuning) patent by the United States Patent Office. Lodge was Principal of the University of Birmingham from 1900 to 1920
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Allegheny, Pennsylvania
ALLEGHENY CITY (1788–1907) is the name of a former Pennsylvania municipality now reorganized and merged into the modern City of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Allegheny City was a right bank municipality located west across the Allegheny River
Allegheny River
from downtown Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
, with its southwest border formed by the Ohio River and is known today as the NORTH SIDE OF PITTSBURGH . It was annexed by Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
in 1907. Its waterfront district, along the Allegheny and Ohio rivers, is known as Pittsburgh's North Shore — it is along the north side of the confluence of the Allegheny River
Allegheny River
with the Monongahela , where they form the Ohio River — the locale achieved fame as the riverside site of Three Rivers Stadium
Three Rivers Stadium

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Vacuum-tube
In electronics , a VACUUM TUBE, an ELECTRON TUBE, or just a TUBE (North America), or VALVE (Britain and some other regions), is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container. Vacuum
Vacuum
tubes mostly rely on thermionic emission of electrons from a hot filament or a cathode heated by the filament. This type is called a THERMIONIC TUBE or THERMIONIC VALVE. A phototube , however, achieves electron emission through the photoelectric effect . Not all electronic circuit valves/electron tubes are vacuum tubes (evacuated); gas-filled tubes are similar devices containing a gas, typically at low pressure, which exploit phenomena related to electric discharge in gases , usually without a heater. The simplest vacuum tube, the diode , contains only a heater, a heated electron-emitting cathode (the filament itself acts as the cathode in some diodes), and a plate (anode)
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George Westinghouse
GEORGE WESTINGHOUSE, JR. (October 6, 1846 – March 12, 1914) was an American entrepreneur and engineer who invented the railway air brake and was a pioneer of the electrical industry , gaining his first patent at the age of 19. Based in Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
for much of his career, Westinghouse was one of Thomas Edison
Thomas Edison
's main rivals in the early implementation of the American electricity system. Westinghouse's electricity distribution system , based on alternating current , ultimately prevailed over Edison's insistence on direct current
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World Columbian Exposition
The WORLD\'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION (the official shortened name for the WORLD\'S FAIR: COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION, also known as the CHICAGO WORLD\'S FAIR and CHICAGO COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION) was a world\'s fair held in Chicago
Chicago
in 1893
1893
to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus 's arrival in the New World
New World
in 1492. The centerpiece of the Fair, the large water pool, represented the long voyage Columbus took to the New World. Chicago
Chicago
bested New York City
New York City
; Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
; and St. Louis
St. Louis
for the honor of hosting the fair. The Exposition was an influential social and cultural event and had a profound effect on architecture , sanitation, the arts, Chicago's self-image, and American industrial optimism
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West Orange, New Jersey
WEST ORANGE is a suburban township in central Essex County , New Jersey , United States. As of the 2010 United States
United States
Census , the township's population was 46,207, reflecting an increase of 1,264 (+2.8%) from the 44,943 counted in the 2000 Census , which had in turn increased by 5,840 (+14.9%) from the 39,103 counted in the 1990 Census
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Archimedes
ARCHIMEDES OF SYRACUSE (/ˌɑːkɪˈmiːdiːz/ ; Greek : Ἀρχιμήδης; c. 287 – c. 212 BC) was a Greek mathematician , physicist , engineer , inventor , and astronomer . Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity . Generally considered the greatest mathematician of antiquity and one of the greatest of all time, Archimedes
Archimedes
anticipated modern calculus and analysis by applying concepts of infinitesimals and the method of exhaustion to derive and rigorously prove a range of geometrical theorems , including the area of a circle , the surface area and volume of a sphere , and the area under a parabola . Other mathematical achievements include deriving an accurate approximation of pi , defining and investigating the spiral bearing his name, and creating a system using exponentiation for expressing very large numbers
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Potomac River
The POTOMAC RIVER /pəˈtoʊmək/ ( listen (help ·info )) is located along the mid- Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
coast of the United States
United States
and flows into the Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
. The river (main stem and North Branch) is approximately 405 miles (652 km) long, with a drainage area of about 14,700 square miles (38,000 km2). In terms of area, this makes the Potomac River
River
the fourth largest river along the Atlantic coast of the United States
United States
and the 21st largest in the United States. Over 5 million people live within the Potomac watershed
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Washington, DC
WASHINGTON, D.C., formally the DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA and commonly referred to as "WASHINGTON", "THE DISTRICT", or simply "D.C.", is the capital of the United States
United States
. The signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast . The U.S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress and the District is therefore not a part of any state. The states of Maryland and Virginia
Virginia
each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria . Named in honor of President George Washington
George Washington
, the City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital
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John Ambrose Fleming
SIR JOHN AMBROSE FLEMING FRS (29 November 1849 – 18 April 1945) was a British electrical engineer and physicist . He is known for inventing the first thermionic valve or vacuum tube . He is also famous for the left hand rule (for electric motors). He was born the eldest of seven children of James Fleming DD (died 1879), a Congregational minister, and his wife, Mary Ann, at Lancaster , Lancashire
Lancashire
and baptised on 11 February 1850. He was a devout Christian and preached on one occasion at St Martin-in-the-Fields in London on the topic of evidence for the resurrection . In 1932, along with Douglas Dewar and Bernard Acworth , he helped establish the Evolution Protest Movement . Having no children, he bequeathed much of his estate to Christian charities, especially those that helped the poor
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Arc Converter
The ARC CONVERTER, sometimes called the ARC TRANSMITTER, or POULSEN ARC after Danish engineer Valdemar Poulsen who invented it in 1903, was a variety of spark transmitter used in early wireless telegraphy . The arc converter used an electric arc to convert direct current electricity into radio frequency alternating current . It was used as a radio transmitter from 1903 until the 1920s when it was replaced by vacuum tube transmitters. One of the first transmitters that could generate continuous sinusoidal waves , it was one of the first technologies used to transmit sound (amplitude modulation ) by radio. It is on the list of IEEE Milestones as a historic achievement in electrical engineering . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Description * 3 Keying * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links HISTORY Poulsen's first arc converter, from 1903 Circuit of basic arc converter, from Poulsen's 1904 paper (labels added)
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Valdemar Poulsen
VALDEMAR POULSEN (23 November 1869 – 23 July 1942) was a Danish engineer who made significant contributions to early radio technology. He developed a magnetic wire recorder called the TELEGRAPHONE in 1899 and the first continuous wave radio transmitter , the Poulsen arc transmitter, in 1903, which was used in some of the first broadcasting stations until the early 1920s. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Legacy * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links BIOGRAPHYHe was born on 23 November 1869 in Copenhagen
Copenhagen
. The magnetic recording was demonstrated in principle as early as 1898 by Valdemar Poulsen
Valdemar Poulsen
in his telegraphone. Magnetic wire recording , and its successor, magnetic tape recording , involve the use of a magnetizable medium which moves past a recording head
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Continuous Wave
A CONTINUOUS WAVE or CONTINUOUS WAVEFORM (CW) is an electromagnetic wave of constant amplitude and frequency ; almost always a sine wave , that for mathematical analysis is considered to be of infinite duration. Continuous wave
Continuous wave
is also the name given to an early method of radio transmission , in which a sinusoidal carrier wave is switched on and off. Information
Information
is carried in the varying duration of the on and off periods of the signal, for example by Morse code in early radio. In early wireless telegraphy radio transmission, CW waves were also known as "undamped waves", to distinguish this method from damped wave signals produced by earlier spark gap type transmitters
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Machrihanish
MACHRIHANISH (Scottish Gaelic : Machaire Shanais, pronounced ) is a village in Argyll
Argyll
, on the west coast of Scotland. It is a short distance north of the tip of the Mull of Kintyre , which faces out towards Ireland and the Atlantic. Machrihanish
Machrihanish
has a classic links golf course designed by Old Tom Morris
Old Tom Morris
, with views towards the islands of Gigha, Islay and Jura. A second, newer course has been built nearby called Machrihanish
Machrihanish
Dunes. This course is part of a multimillion-pound development by an American company, which has renovated the previously-dilapidated Ugadale Hotel in the village and owns the Royal Hotel on the sea front in nearby Campbeltown
Campbeltown
. Machrihanish
Machrihanish
Beach The main sandy beach runs 3 miles north to Westport, providing opportunities for surfing
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Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Allegheny ------------------------- HISTORIC EMPIRES France
France
Great Britain HISTORIC COLONIES New France
New France
Quebec
Quebec
Virginia FOUNDED November 27, 1758 MUNICIPAL INCORPORATION April 16, 1771 (Township) April 22, 1794 (Borough) March 18, 1816 (City) FOUNDED BY George Washington
George Washington
, General John Forbes NAMED FOR "The Great Commoner": Prime Minister William Pitt GOVERNMENT • TYPE Mayor-Council • MAYOR Bill Peduto (D ) • CITY COUNCIL Councilmembers * Darlene Harris * Theresa Kail-Smith * Bruce Kraus (President) * Natalia Rudiak * Corey O\'Connor * Daniel Lavelle * Deborah Gross * Dan Gilman * Rev
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