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Reformation
The Reformation, or, more fully, the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation, was a schism in Western Christianity
Christianity
initiated by Martin Luther
Martin Luther
and continued by John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, Jacobus Arminius
Jacobus Arminius
and other Protestant Reformers
Protestant Reformers
in 16th-century Europe. It is usually considered to have started with the publication of the Ninety-five Theses
Ninety-five Theses
by Martin Luther
Martin Luther
in 1517 and lasted until the end of the Thirty Years' War in 1648. Although there had been earlier attempts to reform the Catholic Church – such as those of Jan Hus, Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, and Girolamo Savonarola – Luther is widely acknowledged to have started the Reformation
Reformation
with the Ninety-five Theses
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Roger Williams
Williams
Williams
can refer to:Contents1 People 2 Places2.1 Astronomy 2.2 Australia 2.3 United States3 Organizations and companies 4 Other uses 5 See alsoPeople[edit] See also: List of people with surname Williams Williams
Williams
(surname), a surname English in origin, but popular in Wales, 3rd most common in the United K
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Arnoldists
Arnoldists
Arnoldists
were a pre- Protestant
Protestant
Christian movement in the 12th century, named after Arnold of Brescia[1] who criticized the great wealth and possessions of the Roman Catholic Church,[2] and preached against baptism and the Eucharist. His disciples were also called "Publicans" or "Poplecans", a name probably deriving from Paulicians. The Arnoldists
Arnoldists
were condemned as heretics by Pope Lucius III in the Ad abolendam during the Synod of Verona in 1184.[3] Their tenets would later be addressed by Bonacursus of Milan, c
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German Mysticism
German mysticism, sometimes called Dominican mysticism or Rhineland mysticism, was a late medieval Christian mystical movement that was especially prominent within the Dominican order
Dominican order
and in Germany. Although its origins can be traced back to Hildegard of Bingen, it is mostly represented by Meister Eckhart, Johannes Tauler, and Henry Suso. Other notable figures include Rulman Merswin
Rulman Merswin
and Margaretha Ebner, and the Friends of God. This movement often seems to stand in stark contrast with scholasticism and German Theology, but the relationship between scholasticism and German mysticism
German mysticism
is debated. Viewed as a predecessor of the reformation, the contrast becomes very apparent
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Arnold Of Brescia
Arnold of Brescia
Brescia
(c. 1090 – June 1155), also known as Arnaldus (Italian: Arnaldo da Brescia), was an Italian canon regular from Lombardy.[1] He called on the Church to renounce property ownership and participated in the failed Commune of Rome. Exiled at least three times and eventually arrested, Arnold was hanged by the papacy, then was burned posthumously and (his ashes) thrown into the River Tiber
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Reform Movement
A reform movement is a type of social movement that aims to make gradual change, or change in certain aspects of society, rather than rapid or fundamental changes. A reform movement is distinguished from more radical social movements such as revolutionary movements. Reformists' ideas are often grounded in liberalism, although they may be rooted in socialist (specifically, social democratic) or religious concepts
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Humanism
Humanism
Humanism
is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition. The meaning of the term humanism has fluctuated according to the successive intellectual movements which have identified with it.[1] The term was coined by theologian Friedrich Niethammer at the beginning of the 19th century to refer to a system of education based on the study of classical literature ("classical humanism")
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Printing Press
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink. It marked a dramatic improvement on earlier printing methods in which the cloth, paper or other medium was brushed or rubbed repeatedly to achieve the transfer of ink, and accelerated the process. Typically used for texts, the invention and global spread of the printing press was one of the most influential events in the second millennium.[1][2] Johannes Gutenberg, a goldsmith by profession, developed, circa 1439, a printing system by adapting existing technologies to printing purposes, as well as making inventions of his own. Printing
Printing
in East Asia had been prevalent since the Tang dynasty,[3][4] and in Europe, woodblock printing based on existing screw presses was common by the 14th century
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Avignon Papacy
The Avignon
Avignon
Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1376 during which seven successive popes resided in Avignon
Avignon
(then in the Kingdom of Arles, part of the Holy Roman Empire, now in France) rather than in Rome.[1] The situation arose from the conflict between the papacy and the French crown, culminating in the death of Pope
Pope
Boniface VIII after his arrest and maltreatment by Philip IV of France. Following the further death of Pope
Pope
Benedict XI, Philip forced a deadlocked conclave to elect the French Clement V, as Pope
Pope
in 1305. Clement V declined to move to Rome, remaining in France, and in 1309, he moved his court to the papal enclave at Avignon, where it remained for the next 67 years
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Peter Waldo
Peter Waldo, Valdo, Valdes, or Waldes (c. 1140 – c. 1205), also Pierre Vaudès or de Vaux, was a leader of the Waldensians, a Christian spiritual movement of the Middle Ages.Contents1 Relationship with Waldenses 2 Life and work 3 References 4 Sources4.1 Primary 4.2 Secondary5 Further readingRelationship with Waldenses[edit] Some authors have regarded Waldo as founder of the Waldensians.[citation needed] However, Eberhard of Béthune cited evidence showing that the name Waldenses appeared in documents (1170) more than 10 years before the major years of Waldo's activism. Bernard, abbot of Foncald, wrote about the heretics who were known as "Valdensis," who were condemned during the pontificate of Pope
Pope
Lucius II in 1144, decades before Peter Waldo. These extant citation sources document that the name Valdenses had been applied to religious groups before Peter Waldo's time. Life and work[edit] Most details of Waldo's life are unknown
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Johann Reuchlin
Johann Reuchlin
Johann Reuchlin
(sometimes called Johannes; 29 January 1455 – 30 June 1522) was a German-born humanist and a scholar of Greek and Hebrew, whose work also took him to modern-day Austria, Switzerland, and Italy
Italy
and France
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Northern Renaissance
The Northern Renaissance
Renaissance
was the Renaissance
Renaissance
that occurred in Europe north of the Alps. Before 1497, Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
humanism had little influence outside Italy. From the late 15th century, its ideas spread around Europe. This influenced the German Renaissance, French Renaissance, English Renaissance, Renaissance
Renaissance
in the Low Countries, Polish Renaissance
Renaissance
and other national and localized movements, each with different characteristics and strengths. In France, King Francis I imported Italian art, commissioned Venetian artists (including Leonardo da Vinci), and built grand palaces at great expense, starting the French Renaissance
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Girolamo Savonarola
Girolamo Savonarola
Girolamo Savonarola
(Italian: [dʒiˈrɔːlamo savonaˈrɔːla]; 21 September 1452 – 23 May 1498) was an Italian Dominican friar and preacher active in Renaissance
Renaissance
Florence. He was known for his prophecies of civic glory, the destruction of secular art and culture, and his calls for Christian
Christian
renewal. He denounced clerical corruption, despotic rule and the exploitation of the poor. He prophesied the coming of a biblical flood and a new Cyrus from the north who would reform the Church. In September 1494, when Charles VIII of France invaded Italy, and threatened Florence, such prophecies seemed on the verge of fulfilment. While Savonarola intervened with the French king, the Florentines expelled the ruling Medici and, at the friar's urging, established a "popular" republic
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William Tyndale
William Tyndale
William Tyndale
(/ˈtɪndəl/;[1] sometimes spelled Tynsdale, Tindall, Tindill, Tyndall; c. 1494 – c. 6 October 1536) was an English scholar who became a leading figure in the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
in the years leading up to his execution. He is well known for his translation of the Bible
Bible
into English
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Theology Of John Calvin
The theology of John Calvin
John Calvin
has been influential in both the development of the system of belief now known as Calvinism
Calvinism
and in Protestant
Protestant
thought more generally. There has been disagreement among scholars regarding the degree to which later Calvinism
Calvinism
corresponds to Calvin's own theology. The Encyclopedia of Christianity
Christianity
suggests thatHis theological importance is tied to the attempted systematization of Christian doctrine
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Balthasar Hubmaier
Balthasar Hubmaier, also Hubmair, Hubmayr, Hubmeier, Huebmör, Hubmör, Friedberger, Latin: Pacimontanus (c. 1480 – 10 March, 1528) was an influential German Anabaptist
Anabaptist
leader. He was one of the most well-known and respected Anabaptist
Anabaptist
theologians of the Reformation.Contents1 Early life and education 2 Reformer and Anabaptist 3 Prison and death 4 Views4.1 On the Trinity 4.2 On Government and the Sword 4.3 On Baptism 4.4 On Mary 4.5 On the Vernacular 4.6 On Women 4.7 Restoration5 Works 6 Notes 7 Further reading 8 Internal links 9 External linksEarly life and education[edit] He was born in Friedberg, Bavaria
Friedberg, Bavaria
(about five miles east of Augsburg), around 1480
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