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Reform Act 1832
The Representation of the People Act 1832 (known informally as the 1832 Reform Act, Great Reform Act or First Reform Act to distinguish it from subsequent Reform Acts) was an Act of Parliament
Act of Parliament
of the United Kingdom (indexed as 2 & 3 Will. IV c. 45) that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of England and Wales. According to its preamble, the Act was designed to "take effectual Measures for correcting divers Abuses that have long prevailed in the Choice of Members to serve in the Commons House of Parliament".[1] Before the reform, most members nominally represented boroughs. The number of electors in a borough varied widely, from a dozen or so up to 12,000. Frequently the selection of MPs was effectively controlled by one powerful patron: for example Charles Howard, 11th Duke of Norfolk controlled eleven boroughs
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United Kingdom
The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe
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Knights Of The Shire
Knights of the shire (Latin: milites comitatus[1]) was the formal title for members of parliament (MPs) representing a county constituency in the British House of Commons, from its origins in the medieval Parliament of England
Parliament of England
until the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 ended the practice of each county (or shire) forming a single constituency. The corresponding titles for other MPs were burgess in a borough constituency (or citizen if the borough had city status) and baron for a Cinque Ports constituency
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Long Title
The short title is the formal name by which a piece of primary legislation may by law be cited in the United Kingdom and other Westminster-influenced jurisdictions (such as Canada or Australia), as well as the United States and the Philippines. It contrasts with the long title which, while usually being more fully descriptive of the legislation's purpose and effects, is generally too unwieldy for most uses. For example, the short title House of Lords Act 1999
House of Lords Act 1999
contrasts with the long title An Act to restrict membership of the House of Lords by virtue of a hereditary peerage; to make related provision about disqualifications for voting at elections to, and for membership of, the House of Commons; and for connected purposes. The long title (properly, the title in some jurisdictions) is the formal title appearing at the head of a statute (such as an Act of Parliament or of Congress) or other legislative instrument
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Charles Howard, 11th Duke Of Norfolk
Charles Howard, 11th Duke of Norfolk
Duke of Norfolk
(15 March 1746 – 16 December 1815), styled Earl of Surrey from 1777 to 1786, was a British nobleman, peer, and politician. He was the son of Charles Howard, 10th Duke of Norfolk
Duke of Norfolk
and Catherine Brockholes. He was known for actively participating in the Tory party as part of the support to King George III. Surrey succeeded to the title of 11th Duke of Norfolk
Duke of Norfolk
in 1786 upon the death of his father. He spent a considerable amount of his money rebuilding and refurbishing Arundel Castle after inheriting his title and lands. He married, firstly, Marion Coppinger (daughter of John Coppinger), on 1 August 1767, who died a year later giving birth. He married, secondly, Frances Scudamore (1750–1820), the only child of Charles FitzRoy-Scudamore and his wife Frances, formerly Duchess of Beaufort, on 6 April 1771 at London, England
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Short Title
The short title is the formal name by which a piece of primary legislation may by law be cited in the United Kingdom and other Westminster-influenced jurisdictions (such as Canada or Australia), as well as the United States and the Philippines. It contrasts with the long title which, while usually being more fully descriptive of the legislation's purpose and effects, is generally too unwieldy for most uses. For example, the short title House of Lords Act 1999
House of Lords Act 1999
contrasts with the long title An Act to restrict membership of the House of Lords by virtue of a hereditary peerage; to make related provision about disqualifications for voting at elections to, and for membership of, the House of Commons; and for connected purposes. The long title (properly, the title in some jurisdictions) is the formal title appearing at the head of a statute (such as an Act of Parliament or of Congress) or other legislative instrument
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Lower House
A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house.[1] Despite its official position "below" the upper house, in many legislatures worldwide, the lower house has come to wield more power. The lower house typically is the more numerous of the two chambers
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Acts Of Union 1800
The Acts of Union 1800
Acts of Union 1800
(sometimes erroneously referred to as a single Act of Union 1801) were parallel acts of the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland
Parliament of Ireland
which united the Kingdom of Great Britain
Great Britain
and the Kingdom of Ireland
Kingdom of Ireland
(previously in personal union) to create the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland
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Court
A court is a tribunal, often as a government institution, with the authority to adjudicate legal disputes between parties and carry out the administration of justice in civil, criminal, and administrative matters in accordance with the rule of law.[1] In both common law and civil law legal systems, courts are the central means for dispute resolution, and it is generally understood that all persons have an ability to bring their claims before a court. Similarly, the rights of those accused of a crime include the right to present a defense before a court. The system of courts that interprets and applies the law is collectively known as the judiciary. The place where a court sits is known as a venue
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Militia
A militia /mɪˈlɪʃə/[1] is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai). Generally unable to hold ground against regular forces, it is common for militias to be used for aiding regular troops by skirmishing, holding fortifications, or irregular warfare, instead of being used in offensive campaigns by themselves
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Grampound (UK Parliament Constituency)
Coordinates: 50°17′53″N 4°54′00″W / 50.298°N 4.900°W / 50.298; -4.900GrampoundFormer Borough constituency for the House of Commons1547–1821Number of members TwoReplaced by Cornwall Grampound
Grampound
in Cornwall, was a borough constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England, then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1821. It was represented by two Members of Parliament.Contents1 History1.1 Boundaries 1.2 Franchise 1.3 Disfranchisement for corruption2 Members of Parliament2.1 1547–1629 2.2 1640–18213 Elections 4 See also 5 Notes 6 ReferencesHistory[edit] Grampound's market was on a Saturday and the town had a glove factory. Grampound
Grampound
was created a Borough by a charter of King Edward VI with a Mayor, eight Aldermen, a Recorder, and a Town Clerk
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Voting System
An electoral system is a set of rules that determines how elections and referendums are conducted and how their results are determined. Political electoral systems are organized by governments, while non-political elections may take place in business, non-profit organisations and informal organisations. Electoral systems consist of sets of rules that govern all aspects of the voting process: when elections occur, who is allowed to vote, who can stand as a candidate, how ballots are marked and cast, how the ballots are counted (electoral method), limits on campaign spending, and other factors that can affect the outcome
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Winchelsea (UK Parliament Constituency)
Winchelsea
Winchelsea
was a parliamentary constituency in Sussex, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1366 until 1832, when it was abolished by the Great Reform Act.Contents1 History1.1 Boundaries 1.2 History of corruption 1.3 Patronage 1.4 Abolition2 Members of Parliament2.1 1366–1640 2.2 MPs 1640–18323 ReferencesHistory[edit] Boundaries[edit] Winchelsea
Winchelsea
was a Cinque Port, which made it technically of different status from a parliamentary borough, but the difference was purely a nominal one, and it was considered an egregious example of a rotten borough. The constituency consisted of the town and parish of Winchelsea, once a market town and port but by the 19th century much reduced in importance, a mile-and-a-half inland with its harbour destroyed
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Dunwich (uk Parliament Constituency)
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative, elected body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: representing the electorate, making laws, and overseeing the government via hearings and inquiries. The term is similar to the idea of a senate, synod or congress, and is commonly used in countries that are current or former monarchies, a form of government with a monarch as the head. Some contexts restrict the use of the word parliament to parliamentary systems, although it is also used to describe the legislature in some presidential systems (e.g. the French parliament), even where it is not in the official name. Historically, parliaments included various kinds of deliberative, consultative, and judicial assemblies, e.g
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Newark (UK Parliament Constituency)
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative, elected body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: representing the electorate, making laws, and overseeing the government via hearings and inquiries. The term is similar to the idea of a senate, synod or congress, and is commonly used in countries that are current or former monarchies, a form of government with a monarch as the head. Some contexts restrict the use of the word parliament to parliamentary systems, although it is also used to describe the legislature in some presidential systems (e.g. the French parliament), even where it is not in the official name. Historically, parliaments included various kinds of deliberative, consultative, and judicial assemblies, e.g
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Abingdon (UK Parliament Constituency)
Abingdon was a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (and its predecessor institutions for England and Great Britain), electing one Member of Parliament (MP) from 1558 until 1983
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