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Red-figure Vase
Red-figure vase painting is one of the most important styles of figural Greek vase painting. It developed in Athens
Athens
around 520 BC and remained in use until the late 3rd century BC. It replaced the previously dominant style of black-figure vase painting within a few decades. Its modern name is based on the figural depictions in red colour on a black background, in contrast to the preceding black-figure style with black figures on a red background. The most important areas of production, apart from Attica, were in Southern Italy. The style was also adopted in other parts of Greece. Etruria
Etruria
became an important centre of production outside the Greek World. Attic red-figure vases were exported throughout Greece
Greece
and beyond. For a long time, they dominated the market for fine ceramics
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Kylix (drinking Cup)
In the pottery of ancient Greece, a kylix (/ˈkaɪlɪks/ KY-liks, /ˈkɪlɪks/ KIL-iks; Ancient Greek: κύλιξ, pl. κύλικες; also spelled cylix; pl.: kylikes /ˈkaɪlɪˌkiːz/ KY-li-keez, /ˈkɪlɪˌkiːz/ KIL-i-keez) is the most common type of wine-drinking cup. It has a broad, relatively shallow, body raised on a stem from a foot and usually two horizontal handles disposed symmetrically. The main alternative wine-cup shape was the kantharos, with a narrower and deeper cup and high vertical handles. The almost flat interior circle of the base of the cup, called the tondo, was generally the primary surface for painted decoration in the black-figure or red-figure pottery styles of the 6th and 5th century BC, and the outside was also often painted. As the representations would be covered with wine, the scenes would only be revealed in stages as the wine was drained
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South Italian
Neapolitan (autonym: (’o n)napulitano [(o n)napuliˈtɑːnə]; Italian: napoletano) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Italo-Dalmatian group spoken across much of southern Italy, except for southern Calabria
Calabria
and Sicily.[4][5][6] It is not named specifically after the city of Naples, but rather the homonymous Kingdom that once covered most of the area, and of which the city was the capital
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Oxidation
Redox
Redox
(short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: /ˈrɛdɒks/ redoks or /ˈriːdɒks/ reedoks[1]) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed. Any such reaction involves both a reduction process and a complementary oxidation process, two key concepts involved with electron transfer processes.[2] Redox
Redox
reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed; in general, redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between chemical species. The chemical species from which the electron is stripped is said to have been oxidized, while the chemical species to which the electron is added is said to have been reduced
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Silhouette
A silhouette is the image of a person, animal, object or scene represented as a solid shape of a single color, usually black, with its edges matching the outline of the subject. The interior of a silhouette is featureless, and the whole is typically presented on a light background, usually white, or none at all. The silhouette differs from an outline, which depicts the edge of an object in a linear form, while a silhouette appears as a solid shape. Silhouette images may be created in any visual artistic media,[1] but were first used to describe pieces of cut paper, which were then stuck to a backing in a contrasting colour, and often framed. Cutting portraits, generally in profile, from black card became popular in the mid-18th century, though the term silhouette was seldom used until the early decades of the 19th century, and the tradition has continued under this name into the 21st century
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Dionysos
Dionysus
Dionysus
(/daɪ.əˈnaɪsəs/; Greek: Διόνυσος Dionysos) is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility,[2][3] theatre and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth. Wine
Wine
played an important role in Greek culture, and the cult of Dionysus
Dionysus
was the main religious focus for its unrestrained consumption.[4] His worship became firmly established in the seventh century BC.[5] He may have been worshipped as early as c. 1500–1100 BC by Mycenean Greeks;[6][7] traces of Dionysian-type cult have also been found in ancient Minoan Crete.[8] His origins are uncertain, and his cults took many forms; some are described by ancient sources as Thracian, others as Greek.[9][10][11] In some cults, he arrives from the east, as an Asiatic foreigner; in others, from Ethiopia
Ethiopia
in the South
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Exekias
Exekias
Exekias
(Ancient Greek: Ἐξηκίας, Exēkías) was an ancient Greek vase-painter and potter who was active in Athens
Athens
between roughly 545 BC and 530 BC.[1] Exekias
Exekias
worked mainly in the black-figure technique, which involved the painting of scenes using a clay slip that fired to black, with details created through incision
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Corinth
Corinth
Corinth
(/ˈkɒrɪnθ/; Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos, pronounced [ˈkorinθos] ( listen)) is an ancient city and former municipality in Corinthia, Peloponnese, which is located in south-central Greece
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Hermes
Hermes
Hermes
(/ˈhɜːrmiːz/; Greek: Ἑρμῆς) is an Olympian god in Greek religion and mythology, the son of Zeus
Zeus
and the Pleiad Maia, and the second youngest of the Olympian gods ( Dionysus
Dionysus
being the youngest). Hermes
Hermes
was the emissary and messenger of the gods.[1] Hermes
Hermes
was also "the divine trickster"[2] and "the god of boundaries and the transgression of boundaries, ... the patron of herdsmen, thieves, graves, and heralds."[3] He is described as moving freely between the worlds of the mortal and divine, and was the conductor of souls into the afterlife.[4] He was also viewed as the protector and patron of roads and travelers.[5] In some myths, he is a trickster and outwits other gods for his own satisfaction or for the sake of humankind
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Athena
Athena[Notes 2] or Athene,[Notes 3] often given the epithet Pallas,[Notes 4] is the ancient Greek goddess of wisdom, handicraft, and warfare,[1] who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva.[2] Athena
Athena
was regarded as the patron and protectress of various cities across Greece, particularly the city of Athens, from which she most likely received her name.[3] She is usually shown in art wearing a helmet and holding a spear. Her major symbols include owls, olive trees, snakes, and the Gorgoneion. From her origin as an Aegean palace goddess, Athena
Athena
was closely associated with the city. She was known as Polias and Poliouchos (both derived from polis, meaning "city-state"), and her temples were usually located atop the fortified Acropolis
Acropolis
in the central part of the city
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Andokides (potter)
Andokides (/ˌændoʊˈsaɪdiːz/;[1] Greek: Ἀνδοκίδης) was a famous potter of Ancient Greece. The painter of his pots was an anonymous artist, the Andokides painter, who is recognized as the creator of the red-figure style, beginning around 530 BC. His work is compared with Exekias, who was said to have created the most detailed and best examples of black-figure pottery. Exekias
Exekias
is said to be the teacher of Andokides. Although the work of Andokides and his painter is considered inferior to that of Exekias, the invention of red figure was an important innovation. The most renowned work of Andokides is the amphora depicting the god Dionysus
Dionysus
and two of his maenads. Notes[edit]^ "Andocides". The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed., Columbia University Press, 2012.References[edit]Tansey, R. and F
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Andokides Painter
The Andokides Painter was an ancient Athenian
Athenian
vase painter, active from approximately 530 to 515 B.C.[1] His work is unsigned and his true name unknown. He was identified as a unique artistic personality through stylistic traits found in common among several paintings. This corpus was then attributed by John D. Beazley to the Andokides Painter, a name derived from the potter Andokides, whose signature appears on several of the vases bearing the painter's work.[2] He is often credited with being the originator of the red-figure vase painting technique. To be sure, he is certainly one of the earliest painters to work in the style. In total, fourteen amphorae and two cups are attributed to his hand
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Krater
A krater or crater (Greek: κρατήρ, kratēr, lit. "mixing vessel") was a large vase in Ancient Greece, particularly used for watering down wine.Contents1 Form and function 2 Usage 3 Wine
Wine
dilution 4 Forms of kraters4.1 Column krater 4.2 Calyx krater 4.3 Volute
Volute
krater 4.4 Bell krater5 Metal kraters 6 Ornamental stone kraters 7 ReferencesForm and function[edit] Further information: Ancient Greek vase painting
Ancient Greek vase painting
and Pottery of ancient Greece At a Greek symposium, kraters were placed in the center of the room. They were quite large, so they were not easily portable when filled. Thus, the wine-water mixture would be withdrawn from the krater with other vessels, such as a kyathos (pl. kyathoi), an amphora (pl. amphorai)[1], or a kylix (pl. kylikes)[1]
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Triptolemos Painter
The Triptolemos
Triptolemos
Painter was an ancient Greek vase painter, belonging to the Attic red-figure style. He was active in Athens between 490 and 470 BC. His real name is not known. He started working in the workshop of Euphronios, where he was probably taught by Douris. Later, he also worked for the potters Brygos, Hieron and Python. Initially, his style was strongly influenced by Archaic art. His later works are mediocre in quality. Nonetheless, his repertoire is broad, reaching from the Apaturia
Apaturia
procession via erotic scenes and Theban scenes to the departure of Triptolemos
Triptolemos
(his name vase). Bibliography[edit]Margot Schmidt: Der Zorn des Achill. Ein Stamnos des Triptolemosmalers. In: Opus nobile. Festschrift zum 60. Geburtstag von Ulf Jantzen (Wiesbaden 1969) p. 141-152. Elfriede R
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Palaestra
The palaestra (/pəˈliːstrə/ or /-ˈlaɪ-/;[1] also (chiefly British) palestra; Greek: παλαίστρα)[2] was the ancient Greek wrestling school. The events that did not require a lot of space, such as boxing and wrestling, were practised there. The palaestra functioned both independently and as a part of public gymnasia; a palaestra could exist without a gymnasium, but no gymnasium could exist without a palaestra.Contents1 Architecture 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksArchitecture[edit] The architecture of the palaestra, although allowing for some variation, followed a distinct, standard plan. The palaestra essentially consisted of a rectangular court surrounded by colonnades with adjoining rooms
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Euphronios
Euphronios
Euphronios
(circa 535 - after 470 BC) was an ancient Greek vase painter and potter, active in Athens
Athens
in the late 6th and early 5th centuries BC. As part of the so-called "Pioneer Group," ( a modern name given to a group of vase painters who were instrumental in effecting the change from Black-figure pottery
Black-figure pottery
to Red figure), Euphronios
Euphronios
was one of the most important artists of the red-figure technique
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