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Reconquista
The Reconquista[a] (Spanish and Portuguese for the "reconquest") is a name used to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad
Umayyad
conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada
Granada
to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492
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Cantigas De Santa Maria
The Cantigas de Santa Maria
Cantigas de Santa Maria
("Canticles of Holy Mary"; Galician: [kanˈtiɣa̝s ðe̝ ˈsanta̝ maˈɾi.a̝]), Portuguese: [kɐ̃ˈtiɣɐʒ ðɨ ˈsɐ̃tɐ mɐˈɾi.ɐ], are 420 poems with musical notation, written in the medieval Galician-Portuguese language
Galician-Portuguese language
during the reign of Alfonso X El Sabio (1221–1284) and often attributed to him. It is one of the largest collections of monophonic (solo) songs from the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and is characterized by the mention of the Virgin Mary in every song, while every tenth song is a hymn. The Cantigas have survived in four manuscript codices: two at El Escorial, one at Madrid's National Library, and one in Florence, Italy. The E codex from El Escorial
El Escorial
is illuminated with colored miniatures showing pairs of musicians playing a wide variety of instruments
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Battle Of Torrevicente
The Battle of Torrevicente was fought on Saturday, 9 July 981 between a force loyal to the Caliphate of Córdoba
Caliphate of Córdoba
under the command of Ibn Abi ‘Amir and a rebel force under Galib ibn Abd al-Rahman and his Christian allies, King Ramiro Garcés of Viguera and Count García Fernández of Castile. It was Galib's intention to continue the policy of previous caliphs, Abd ar-Rahman III
Abd ar-Rahman III
and al-Hakam II, which was to maintain supremacy over the Christian principalities in peace. Ibn Abi ‘Amir was pursuing a new policy of jihad, signalled by his seven aggressive actions against the Christians in the previous three years.[1] Both Ramiro and Galib died during the battle and Ibn Abi ‘Amir was victorious
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Emirate Of Córdoba
The Emirate
Emirate
of Córdoba (Arabic: إمارة قرطبة‎, Imārah Qurṭuba) was an independent emirate in the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
ruled by the Umayyad dynasty with Córdoba as its capital. After the Umayyad conquest of Hispania
Umayyad conquest of Hispania
in 711–718, the Iberian Peninsula was established as a province under the Umayyad Caliphate. The rulers of this province established their capital in Córdoba and received from the Umayyad Caliphate
Umayyad Caliphate
the title of wali or emir. In 756, Abd al-Rahman I, a prince of the deposed Umayyad royal family, refused to recognize the authority of the Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
and became an independent emir of Córdoba. He had been on the run for six years after the Umayyads had lost the position of caliph in Damascus
Damascus
in 750 to the Abbasids
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Umayyad Caliphate
The Umayyad Caliphate
Caliphate
(Arabic: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة‎, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt Omayyad,[2] was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. The caliphate was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty
Umayyad dynasty
(Arabic: ٱلأُمَوِيُّون‎, al-ʾUmawiyyūn, or بَنُو أُمَيَّة, Banū ʾUmayya, "Sons of Umayya"), hailing from Mecca. An Umayyad clan member had previously come to power as the third Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan
Uthman ibn Affan
(r. 644–656), but official Umayyad rule was established by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, long-time governor of Syria, after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in AD 661
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Marinid Dynasty
The Marinid dynasty
Marinid dynasty
(Berber: Imrinen, Arabic: المرينيون‎ Marīniyūn) or Banu abd al-Haqq was a Sunni Muslim[3] dynasty of Zenata
Zenata
Berber descent that ruled Morocco
Morocco
from the 13th to the 15th century.[1][4] In 1244, the Marinid rulers overthrew the Almohad Caliphate, which controlled Morocco.[5] The Marinid dynasty
Marinid dynasty
briefly held sway over all the Maghreb
Maghreb
in the mid-14th century
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Kingdom Of Galicia
The Kingdom of Galicia
Kingdom of Galicia
(Galician: Reino de Galicia, or Galiza; Spanish: Reino de Galicia; Portuguese: Reino da Galiza; Latin: Galliciense Regnum) was a political entity located in southwestern Europe, which at its territorial zenith occupied the entire northwest of the Iberian Peninsula. Founded by Suebic king Hermeric
Hermeric
in 409, the Galician capital was established in Braga,[1] being the first kingdom which adopted Catholicism officially and minted its own currency (year 449). It was part of the Kingdom of the Spanish Visigothic monarchs from 585 to 711
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Kingdom Of Aragon
The Kingdom of Aragon (Aragonese: Reino d'Aragón, Catalan: Regne d'Aragó, Latin: Regnum Aragonum, Spanish: Reino de Aragón) was a medieval and early modern kingdom on the Iberian Peninsula, corresponding to the modern-day autonomous community of Aragon, in Spain. It should not be confused with the larger Crown of Aragon, that also included other territories — the Principality of Catalonia (which included the County of Barcelona and the other Catalan Counties), the Kingdom of Valencia, the Kingdom of Majorca, and other possessions that are now part of France, Italy, and Greece — that were also under the rule of the King of Aragon, but were administered separately from the Kingdom of Aragon. In 1479, upon John II of Aragon’s death, the crowns of Aragon and Castile were united to form the nucleus of modern Spain
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Kingdom Of Castile
The Kingdom of Castile
Kingdom of Castile
(/kæˈstiːl/; Spanish: Reino de Castilla, Latin: Regnum Castellae) was a large and powerful state on the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages. Its name comes from the host of castles constructed in the region. It began in the 9th century as the County of Castile
County of Castile
(Condado de Castilla), an eastern frontier lordship of the Kingdom of León. During the 10th century its counts increased their autonomy, but it was not until 1065 that it was separated from León and became a kingdom in its own right. Between 1072 and 1157 it was again united with León, and after 1230 this union became permanent. Throughout this period the Castilian kings made extensive conquests in southern Iberia at the expense of the Islamic principalities
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Battle Of Clavijo
The Battle of Clavijo is a mythical battle. "To a serious historian, the existence of the Battle of Clavijo is not even a topic of discussion".[1] However, it was believed for centuries to be historical, and it became a popular theme of Spanish traditions regarding the Christian expulsion of the Muslims.[2] The stories about the battle are first found centuries after it allegedly occurred; according to them, it was fought near Clavijo between Christians, led by Ramiro I of Asturias, and Muslims, led by the Emir of Córdoba. In the legend, the apostle James, son of Zebedee, an associate of Jesus who died 800 years earlier, suddenly appeared and led an outnumbered Christian army to gain its victory. He became the patron saint of Spain and is known to Spaniards as Saint James Matamoros ("the Moor-killer")
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Taifa
In the history of the Iberian Peninsula, a taifa (from Arabic: طائفة‎ ṭā'ifa, plural طوائف ṭawā'if) was an independent Muslim-ruled principality, of which a number were formed in Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
(Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba
Caliphate of Córdoba
in 1031
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Almoravid Dynasty
The Almoravid dynasty
Almoravid dynasty
(Berber languages: Imṛabḍen, ⵉⵎⵕⴰⴱⴹⴻⵏ; Arabic: المرابطون‎, Al-Murābiṭūn) was an imperial Berber Muslim
Muslim
dynasty centered in Morocco.[1][2] It established an empire in the 11th century that stretched over the western Maghreb
Maghreb
and Al-Andalus. Founded by Abdallah ibn Yasin, the Almoravid capital was Marrakesh, a city the ruling house founded in 1062. The dynasty originated among the Lamtuna and the Gudala, nomadic Berber tribes of the Sahara, traversing the territory between the Draa, the Niger, and the Senegal rivers.[3] The Almoravids were crucial in preventing the fall of Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
to the Iberian Christian kingdoms, when they decisively defeated a coalition of the Castilian and Aragonese armies at the Battle of Sagrajas in 1086
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Kingdom Of Portugal
The Kingdom of Portugal (Latin: Regnum Portugalliae, Portuguese: Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal. It was in existence from 1139 until 1910. After 1248, it was also known as the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, and between 1815 and 1822, it was known as the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. The name is also often applied to the Portuguese Empire, the realm's extensive overseas colonies. The nucleus of the Portuguese state was the County of Portugal, established in the 9th century as part of the Reconquista, by Vímara Peres, a vassal of the King of Asturias. The county became part of the Kingdom of León in 1097, and the Counts of Portugal established themselves as rulers of an independent kingdom in the 12th century, following the battle of São Mamede
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Catholic Monarchs
The Catholic Monarchs[a][b] is the joint title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile[1] and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. They were both from the House of Trastámara
House of Trastámara
and were second cousins, being both descended from John I of Castile; on marriage they were given a papal dispensation to deal with consanguinity by Sixtus IV. They married on October 19, 1469, in the city of Valladolid; Isabella was eighteen years old and Ferdinand a year younger. It is generally accepted by most scholars (John Elliott being an English-speaking example) that the unification of Spain
Spain
can essentially be traced back to the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella
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Kingdom Of Navarre
 FranceThe Kingdom of Navarre
Navarre
(/nəˈvɑːr/; Basque: Nafarroako Erresuma, Spanish: Reino de Navarra, French: Royaume de Navarre, Latin: Regnum Navarrae), originally the Kingdom of Pamplona
Pamplona
(Basque: Iruñeko Erresuma), was a Basque-based kingdom[7] that occupied lands on either side of the western Pyrenees, alongside the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
between present-day Spain
Spain
and France. The medieval state took form around the city of Pamplona
Pamplona
during the first centuries of the Iberian Reconquista. The kingdom has its origins in the conflict in the buffer region between the Frankish king Charlemagne
Charlemagne
and the Umayyad Emirate that controlled most of the Iberian Peninsula
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Iberian Peninsula
The Iberian Peninsula
Peninsula
/aɪˈbɪəriən pəˈnɪnsjʊlə/,[a] also known as Iberia /aɪˈbɪəriə/,[b] is located in the southwest corner of Europe. The peninsula is principally divided between Portugal
Portugal
and Spain, comprising most of their territory. It also includes Andorra, and a small part of France
France
along the peninsula's northeastern edge, as well as Gibraltar
Gibraltar
on its south coast, a small peninsula that forms an overseas territory of the United Kingdom
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