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Rassemblement National Populaire
The National Popular Rally
National Popular Rally
(French: Rassemblement national populaire, RNP, 1941–1944) was a French political party and one of the main collaborationist parties under the Vichy
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Otto Abetz
Heinrich Otto Abetz
Otto Abetz
(26 March 1903 – 5 May 1958) was the German ambassador to Vichy France
Vichy France
during the
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Philippe Pétain
World War IBattle of VerdunRif WarsHenri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain
Philippe Pétain
(French: [fi.lip pe.tɛ̃]) or Marshal Pétain (Maréchal Pétain), was a French general officer who attained the position of Marshal of France
Marshal of France
and subsequently served as the Chief of State of Vichy France
Vichy France
from 1940 to 1944. Pétain, who was 84 years old in 1940, ranks as France's oldest head of state. Today, he is considered a Nazi collaborator, the French equivalent of his contemporary Vidkun Quisling
Vidkun Quisling
in Norway
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French Popular Party
The Parti Populaire Français (French Popular Party) was a French fascist and anti-semitic political party led by Jacques Doriot
Jacques Doriot
before and during World War II. It is generally regarded as the most collaborationist party of France.Contents1 Formation and early years 2 Ideology and fascism of PPF 3 The PPF during the war3.1 The PPF and the home front 3.2 The PPF and wartime activities outside metropolitan France4 Members 5 See also 6 ReferencesFormation and early years[edit] The party was formed on 28 June 1936, by Doriot and a number of fellow former members of the French Communist Party
French Communist Party
(including Henri Barbé and Paul Marion) who had moved towards nationalism in opposition to the Popular Front. The PPF initially centered around the town of Saint-Denis, of which Doriot was mayor (as a Communist) from 1930–1934, and drew its support from the large working class population in the area
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Marcel Bucard
Marcel Bucard
Marcel Bucard
(December 7, 1895, Saint-Clair-sur-Epte
Saint-Clair-sur-Epte
– March 13, 1946, Fort of Châtillon) was a French Fascist politician.Contents1 Early career 2 World War II 3 Death 4 ReferencesEarly career[edit]From left to right: Marcel Bucard, Paul Lafitte and J.-B. L'Herault (Jan. 1934)A decorated soldier who earned a reputation for bravery in World War I,[1] Bucard became active in politics after 1918, initially as a member of Action Française
Action Française
(an Integralist royalist far right group) and then as a member of the overtly fascist and antisemitic Faisceau of Georges Valois. In September 1933, Bucard founded his own group, the Mouvement Franciste - arguably the most extreme group of the time, and one financed by Benito Mussolini's government
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Nazi Germany
Coordinates: 52°31′N 13°24′E / 52.517°N 13.400°E / 52.517; 13.400 "Drittes Reich" redirects here
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French Far-right
The far-right tradition in France finds its origins in the Third Republic with Boulangism
Boulangism
and the Dreyfus Affair. The modern "far right" or radical right grew out of two separate events of 1889: the splitting off in the Socialist International of those who chose the nation and the culmination of the "Boulanger Affair", which championed the demands of the former Minister of War General Georges Boulanger. The Dreyfus Affair
Dreyfus Affair
provided one of the political division lines of France. Nationalism, which had been before the Dreyfus Affair
Dreyfus Affair
a left-wing and Republican ideology, turned after that to be a main trait of the right-wing and, moreover, of the far right. A new right emerged, and nationalism was reappropriated by the far right who turned it into a form of ethnic nationalism, itself blended with anti-Semitism, xenophobia, anti-Protestantism and anti-Masonry
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Eugène Deloncle
Eugène Deloncle (20 June 1890, Brest – 17 January 1944, Paris) was a French engineer and Fascist leader, and the adoptive father of Jacques Corrèze. A graduate of the École Polytechnique, Deloncle worked for the French Navy, and enrolled in World War I
World War I
as an artillery officer. Wounded on the Champagne frontline, he was awarded the Legion of Honor. Initially supportive of the integralist Action Française, he left the movement in 1935, in order to found his own group - the Comité Secret d'Action Révolutionnaire (CSAR), usually known as La Cagoule (a name given by the press)
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Cagoule
A cagoule (French: [kaɡul], balaclava), also spelled cagoul, kagoule or kagool, is the British English
British English
term for a lightweight (usually without lining), weatherproof raincoat or anorak with a hood, which often comes in knee-length form.[1] The Canadian English equivalent is windbreaker or K-Way. In some versions, when rolled up, the hood or cross-chest front pocket doubles as a bag into which the shell can be packed.Contents1 History and styles 2 Gallery 3 See also 4 ReferencesHistory and styles[edit] A cagoule which could be ro
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Jean Fontenoy
Jean Fontenoy (21 March 1899 – April 1945) was a French journalist, communist and fascist politician who was a collaborator with Nazi Germany. Biography[edit] Born in Fontainebleau, Seine-et-Marne, Fontenoy worked as a journalist for the Havas
Havas
news agency from 1924 to the mid-1930s in
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French Left
The Left in France
France
(French: gauche française) was represented at the beginning of the 20th century by two main political parties: the Republican, Radical and Radical- Socialist Party
Socialist Party
and the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO), created in 1905 as a merger of various Marxist
Marxist
parties. But in 1914, after the assassination of the leader of the SFIO, Jean Jaurès, who had upheld an internationalist and anti-militarist line, the SFIO accepted to join the Union Sacrée national front. In the aftermaths of the 1917 Russian Revolution and the Spartacist insurrection in Germany, the French Left
French Left
divided itself in reformists and revolutionaries during the 1920 Tours Congress, which saw the majority of the SFIO spin-out to form the French Section of the Communist International
Communist International
(SFIC)
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Pierre Laval
Pierre Jean-Marie Laval (French pronunciation: ​[pjɛʁ laval]; 28 June 1883 – 15 October 1945) was a French politician. During the time of the Third Republic, he served as Prime Minister of France
Prime Minister of France
from 27 January 1931 to 20 February 1932, and a second time from 7 June 1935 to 24 January 1936. Laval began his career as a socialist, but over time drifted far to the right. Following France's defeat and armistice with Germany in 1940, he served in prominent roles in Philippe Pétain's Vichy Regime, first as the vice-president of the Council of Ministers from 11 July 1940 to 13 December 1940, and later as the head of government from 18 April 1942 to 20 August 1944. After the liberation of France in 1944, Laval was arrested by the French government under General Charles de Gaulle
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Ideology
Ideology
Ideology
is a comprehensive set of normative beliefs, conscious and unconscious ideas, that an individual, group or society has. An ideology is narrower in scope than the ideas expressed in concepts such as worldview, imaginary and ontology.[1] Political ideologies can be proposed by the dominant class of society such as the elite to all members of society as suggested in some Marxist
Marxist
and critical-theory accounts
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Vichy
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Vichy
Vichy
(/ˈvɪʃi/;[2] French pronunciation: ​[viʃi]) (Vichèi in Occitan)) is a city in the Allier
Allier
department of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
in central France, in the historic province of Bourbonnais. It is a spa and resort town and in World War II
World War II
was the seat of government of Vichy
Vichy
France
France
from 1940 to 1944. The term Vichyste indicated collaboration with the Vichy
Vichy
regime, often carrying a pejorative connotation.[3] Today, the town's inhabitants are called Vichyssois
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Fascist
Fascism
Fascism
(/ˈfæʃɪzəm/) is a form of radical authoritarian nationalism,[1][2] characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce,[3] which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.[4] The first fascist movements emerged in Italy during World War I
World War I
before it spread to other European countries.[4] Opposed to liberalism, Marxism
Marxism
and anarchism, fascism is usually placed on the far-right within the traditional left–right spectrum.[5][6][7][4][8][9] Fascists saw World War I
World War I
as a revolution that brought massive changes to the nature of war, society, the state and technology. The advent of total war and the total mass mobilization of society had broken down the distinction between civilians and combatants
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Racist
Racism
Racism
is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity. Today, the use of the term "racism" does not easily fall under a single definition.[1] The ideology underlying racist practices often includes the idea that humans can be subdivided into distinct groups that are different due to their social behavior and their innate capacities as well as the idea that they can be ranked as inferior or superior.[2] Historical examples of institutional racism include the Holocaust, the apartheid regime in South Africa, and slavery and segregation in the United States
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