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Rail Freight Transport
RAIL FREIGHT TRANSPORT is the use of railroads and trains to transport cargo as opposed to human passengers . A FREIGHT TRAIN or GOODS TRAIN is a group of freight cars (US) or goods wagons ( International Union of Railways
International Union of Railways
) hauled by one or more locomotives on a railway, transporting cargo all or some of the way between the shipper and the intended destination as part of the logistics chain . Trains may haul bulk material , intermodal containers , general freight or specialized freight in purpose-designed cars. Rail freight practices and economics vary by country and region. When considered in terms of ton-miles or tonne-kilometers hauled per unit of energy consumed, rail transport can be more efficient than other means of transportation. Maximum economies are typically realized with bulk commodities (e.g., coal ), especially when hauled over long distances
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Well Car
A WELL CAR, also known as a DOUBLE-STACK CAR or STACK CAR (also WELL WAGON), is a type of railroad car specially designed to carry intermodal containers (shipping containers) used in intermodal freight transport . The "well" is a depressed section which sits close to the rails between the wheel trucks of the car, allowing a container to be carried lower than on a traditional flatcar . This makes it possible to carry a stack of two containers per unit on railway lines (double-stack rail transport ) wherever the loading gauge assures sufficient clearance. The top container is secured to the bottom container either by a bulkhead built into the car (e.g., bottom and top containers are the same dimensions of 40 ft.), or through the use of inter-box connectors (IBC). Four IBCs are needed per wellcar
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Flat Wagons
A FLATCAR (US) (also FLAT CAR (US) or FLAT WAGON (UIC )) is a piece of railroad (US) or railway (non-US) rolling stock that consists of an open, flat deck mounted on a pair of trucks (US) or bogies (UK), one at each end containing four or six wheels. Occasionally, flat cars designed to carry extra heavy or extra large loads are mounted on a pair (or rarely, more) of bogeys under each end . The deck of the car can be wood or steel , and the sides of the deck can include pockets for stakes or tie-down points to secure loads. Flatcars designed for carrying machinery have sliding chain assemblies recessed in the deck. Flatcars are used for loads that are too large or cumbersome to load in enclosed cars such as boxcars . They are also often used to transport intermodal containers (shipping containers) or trailers as part of intermodal freight transport shipping
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Refrigerated Van
A REFRIGERATED VAN (also called a REFRIGERATED WAGON) is a railway goods wagon with cooling equipment. Today they are designated by the International Union of Railways (UIC) as Class I . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Construction * 3 Use * 4 Types * 5 References * 6 See also * 7 External links HISTORYThe first wagons were cooled with ice that had been cut in winter from special pools or lakes. It was Gustavus Swift who succeed in the winter of 1877 for the first time in developing an efficient cooling system for railway wagons for Chicago
Chicago
businesses and meat producers. It circulated air through the ice and then through the entire wagon in order to cool it down. This system was the basis of the success of the Union Stock Yard , the Chicago
Chicago
slaughterhouses
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Mineral
A MINERAL is a naturally occurring chemical compound , usually of crystalline form and abiogenic in origin. A mineral has one specific chemical composition , whereas a rock can be an aggregate of different minerals or mineraloids . The study of minerals is called mineralogy . There are over 5,300 known mineral species; as of March 2017 , over 5,230 of these have been approved by the International Mineralogical Association (IMA). The silicate minerals compose over 90% of the Earth\'s crust . The diversity and abundance of mineral species is controlled by the Earth's chemistry. Silicon
Silicon
and oxygen constitute approximately 75% of the Earth's crust, which translates directly into the predominance of silicate minerals. Minerals are distinguished by various chemical and physical properties . Differences in chemical composition and crystal structure distinguish the various species, which were determined by the mineral's geological environment when formed
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Tank Car
A TANK CAR ( International Union of Railways
International Union of Railways
(UIC): TANK WAGON) is a type of railroad car (UIC: railway car) or rolling stock designed to transport liquid and gaseous commodities
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Flat Car
A FLATCAR (US) (also FLAT CAR (US) or FLAT WAGON (UIC )) is a piece of railroad (US) or railway (non-US) rolling stock that consists of an open, flat deck mounted on a pair of trucks (US) or bogies (UK), one at each end containing four or six wheels. Occasionally, flat cars designed to carry extra heavy or extra large loads are mounted on a pair (or rarely, more) of bogeys under each end . The deck of the car can be wood or steel , and the sides of the deck can include pockets for stakes or tie-down points to secure loads. Flatcars designed for carrying machinery have sliding chain assemblies recessed in the deck. Flatcars are used for loads that are too large or cumbersome to load in enclosed cars such as boxcars . They are also often used to transport intermodal containers (shipping containers) or trailers as part of intermodal freight transport shipping
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Covered Goods Wagon
A COVERED GOODS WAGON or VAN is a railway goods wagon which is designed for the transportation of moisture-susceptible goods and therefore fully enclosed by sides and a fixed roof. They are often referred to simply as COVERED WAGONS, and this is the term used by the International Union of Railways
International Union of Railways
(UIC). Since the introduction of the international classification for goods wagons by the UIC in the 1960s a distinction has been drawn between ordinary and special covered wagons. Other types of wagon, such as refrigerated vans and goods wagons with opening roofs , are closely related to covered wagons from a design point of view. Similar freight cars in North America are boxcars
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Siding (rail)
A SIDING, in rail terminology , is a low-speed track section distinct from a running line or through route such as a main line or branch line or spur . It may connect to through track or to other sidings at either end. Sidings often have lighter rails, meant for lower speed or less heavy traffic, and few, if any, signals. Sidings connected at both ends to a running line are commonly known as LOOPS; otherwise they are known as SINGLE-ENDED SIDINGS or DEAD END SIDINGS, or (if short) STUBS. CONTENTS * 1 Functions * 2 Passing siding * 3 Refuge siding * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Bibliography FUNCTIONSSidings may be used for marshalling, stabling, storing, loading and unloading vehicles. Common sidings store stationary rolling stock , especially for loading and unloading. INDUSTRIAL SIDINGS go to factories , mines , quarries , wharves , warehouses , some of them are essentially links to industrial railways
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Drayage
DRAYAGE is defined as the transport of goods over a short distance In the shipping industry and logistics industry. Drayage is often part of a longer overall move, such as from a ship to a warehouse. Some research defines it specifically as "a truck pickup from or delivery to a seaport , border point, inland port , or intermodal terminal with both the trip origin and destination in the same urban area ". Port drayage is the term used when describing short hauls from ports and other areas to nearby locations. Drayage is a key aspect of the transfer of shipments to and from other means of transportation. The term drayage is also used for the fee paid for such services. HISTORYThe term originally meant "to transport by a sideless cart", or dray . Such carts, pulled by dray horses , were used to move goods short distances, limited by the physical limitations of a dray horse. Dray activities generally occurred at marine ports, spreading to canal and rail terminals
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Sorting
SORTING is any process of arranging items systematically, and has two common, yet distinct meanings: * ordering : arranging items in a sequence ordered by some criterion; * categorizing : grouping items with similar properties.CONTENTS* 1 Sorting
Sorting
information or data * 1.1 Common sorting algorithms * 2 Physical sorting processes * 3 See also * 4 External links SORTING INFORMATION OR DATAIn computer science , arranging in an ordered sequence is called "sorting". Sorting
Sorting
is a common operation in many applications, and efficient algorithms to perform it have been developed. The most common uses of sorted sequences are: * making lookup or search efficient; * making merging of sequences efficient. * enable processing of data in a defined order.The opposite of sorting, rearranging a sequence of items in a random or meaningless order, is called shuffling
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Box Car
A BOXCAR is a North American railroad car that is enclosed and generally used to carry freight . The boxcar, while not the simplest freight car design, is probably the most versatile, since it can carry most loads. Boxcars have side doors of varying size and operation, and some include end doors and adjustable bulkheads to load very large items. Similar covered freight cars outside North America
North America
are covered goods wagons and, depending on the region, are called GOODS VAN (UK ), LOUVRE VAN ( Australia
Australia
), COVERED WAGON (UIC and UK) or simply VAN (UIC and UK). CONTENTS * 1 Use * 2 Dimensions * 3 Double door boxcar * 4 End door boxcar * 5 Hicube boxcar * 5.1 X60 class * 6 Passenger use * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links USE Illustration of a boxcar being unloaded by hand Boxcars can carry most kinds of freight
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Hopper Car
A HOPPER CAR is a type of railroad freight car used to transport loose bulk commodities such as coal , ore , grain , and track ballast . Two main types of hopper car exist: COVERED HOPPER CARS, which are equipped with a roof, and OPEN HOPPER CARS, which do not have a roof. Kambarka Engineering Works hopper car to transport track ballast , 750 mm (2 ft 5 1⁄2 in) gauge American hopper car at Pittsburg, Texas , in 2015 This type of car is distinguished from a gondola car in that it has opening doors on the underside or on the sides to discharge its cargo. The development of the hopper car went along with the development of automated handling of such commodities, with automated loading and unloading facilities
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Gondola (rail)
In US railroad terminology , a GONDOLA is an open-topped rail vehicle used for transporting loose bulk materials. Because of their low side walls gondolas are also suitable for the carriage of such high-density cargos as steel plates or coils, or of bulky items such as prefabricated sections of rail track . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Specialized car types * 2.1 Lorry or mine car * 2.1.1 Chaldrons * 2.2 "Bathtub" gondolas * 2.3 Track ballast gondolas * 3 Sources * 4 Naming * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYBefore the opening of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad and the Chesapeake "> A 30 cu ft (0.85 m3) mine car, drawing from the United States Bureau of Mines An open railroad car (gondola) with a tipping trough, often found in mines . Known in the UK as a tippler or chaldron wagon and in the US as a MINE CAR
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Track Gauge
North America · South America · Europe · Australia * v * t * e Part of a series on RAIL TRANSPORT * Operations * Track * Maintenance * High-speed railways * Track gauge * Stations * Trains * Locomotives * Rolling stock * Companies * History * Attractions * Terminology (AU , NA , NZ , UK ) * By country * Accidents * Railway couplings * Couplers by country * Coupler conversion * Track gauge * Variable gauge
Variable gauge
* Gauge conversion * Dual gauge * Wheelset * Bogie
Bogie
(truck) * Dual coupling * Rail subsidies * Modelling * v * t * e In rail transport , TRACK GAUGE is the spacing of the rails on a railway track and is measured between the inner faces of the load-bearing rails
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Network Effect
A NETWORK EFFECT (also called NETWORK EXTERNALITY or DEMAND-SIDE ECONOMIES OF SCALE) is the effect described in economics and business that one user of a good or service has on the value of that product to others. When a network effect is present, the value of a product or service is dependent on the number of others using it. The classic example is the telephone , where a greater number of users increases the value to each. A positive externality is created when a telephone is purchased without its owner intending to create value for other users, but does so regardless. Online social networks work similarly, with sites like Twitter
Twitter
and Facebook
Facebook
increasing in value to each member as more users join. The expression "network effect" is applied most commonly to positive network externalities as in the case of the telephone
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